Cover

Age of Empires (e)

Andere Lösungen
             +-------------------------------------+
             | Age of Empires Strategy Guide for PC| 
             | Author: Jim Chamberlin              |
             | Last Time Updated: 08/04/99         |
             +-------------------------------------+

Any questions, e- mail me at: jjchamber4@aol.com

====================================
Table of Contents
------------------------------------

     I. Introduction
    II. Game Modes
   III. The Villagers 
    IV. The Resources
     V. The Technologies
    VI. War!
   VII. Creating Your Own Scenarios
  VIII. Assyrians
    IX. Babylonians
     X. Chosens
    XI. Egyptians
   XII. Greeks       ***** Still Under Construction *****
  XIII. Hittites     ***** Still Under Construction *****
   XIV. Minoans
    XV. Persians     ***** Still Under Construction *****
   XVI. Phoenicians  
  XVII. Shangs       ***** Still Under Construction *****
 XVIII. Sumerians
   XIX. Yamato
    XX. The Buildings
   XXI. The Units    ***** Still Under Construction *****
  XXII. Extra Stuff  ***** Still Under Construction *****
 XXIII. Credits
  XXIV. Farewell!
   
======================================
I. Introduction
======================================

It isn't totally impossible to make a walkthrough for Age of Empires.  
First, you would have to list all contingencies within the game.  
This, along with all the other things you'd have to mention, if you 
were writing a walkthrough for Silent Hill (PSX), for example, would 
take a lot of time.  Perhaps I'll attempt to do it when I get really, 
really bored.  However, I'm not at that stage, yet.  Anyway, this is a 
general strategy guide for a remarkable game for its type.  Any 
questions or additions, e- mail me at: jjchamber4@aol.com.

======================================
II. Game Modes
======================================

_Campaign_

Basically, it's a series of scenarios which attempt to show the 
development of a given culture.  This is a good place to start for a 
new AoE player.  It allows you to understand and experiment with the 
basics of the games.  

_Scenario_

This is one, single scenario.  Each of the scenarios has a certain set 
of instructions has a certain set of instructions.  You must fulfill 
the requirements to win the scenario.

_Random Map_

This is just a randomly generated map.  You can change the victory 
condition, so there is a specific way you can win.

_Death Match_

Well, you are given a certain amount of resources, and you must fight 
until everyone is dead.

_Multiplayer_

It's a random map or scenario, for example.  The whole Multiplayer 
thing is explained a little more in depth in the manual.  I just don't 
feel like elaborating on it.

======================================
III. The Villagers
======================================

_Tasks_

BUILDER- This person constructs buildings and farms.

FARMER- This person gathers food from a Farm.  The food from the Farm 
is            
        deposited at either the Town Center or at the Granary.  
Researching
        Domestication, the Plow, and Irrigation increases a Farm's 
        production.

FISHERMAN- This person gathers food from the fishing spots.  The food 
is 
           deposited at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit.

FORAGER- This person gathers food from the Berry Bushes.  The food is 
         deposited at either the Town Center or at the Granary.

GOLD MINER- This person mines for Gold at the Gold Mines.  The gold is
            deposited at either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit.
            Researching Gold Mining increases gold mining efficiency, 
and 
            Coinage increases Gold production.

HUNTER- This person hunts for food from: Alligators, Lions, Gazelles, 
and 
        Elephants.  The food is deposited at either the Town Center or 
at the
        Storage Pit.

REPAIRMAN- This person repairs boats and buildings.

STONE MINER- This person miner Stone from Stone Mines.  The stone is 
             deposited at either the Town Center or at the Storage 
Pit.  
             Researching Stone Mining and Siegecraft increases stone 
mining
             efficiency.

VILLAGER- This person is either in combat or doing nothing.  
Researching
          Siegecraft allows Villagers to destroy walls and towers, and 
Jihad 
          increases their combat ability.

WOODCUTTER- This person chops down trees for wood.  The wood is 
deposited at 
            either the Town Center or at the Storage Pit.  Researching 
            Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increases 
woodcutting 
            efficiency.

======================================
IV. The Resources
======================================

_Wood_

This is used to construct boats, buildings, and some military units.  

_Food_

This is used to create villagers, train and upgrade military units, 
research technologies, and advance to the next age.  In AoE, food 
represents Fish, Fruits, Nuts, Roots, Wild Grains, and Berries.

_Gold_

This is used to research technologies in later ages, create some 
military units, advance to the Iron Age, and pay tribute to other 
civilizations.  In AoE, Gold represents Gold, Silver, Bronze, and 
Copper.

_Stone_

This is used to build and upgrade towers and walls, and research some 
technologies.  In AoE, Stone represents both Stone and Clay.

=======================================
V. The Technologies
=======================================

_Storage Pit Technologies_

TOOLWORKING

Age: Tool Age
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 100 Food
Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
Note: The first metals put to use were those found in a relatively 
pure state on the earth's surface, including gold, silver, and copper.  
Gold could be worked in its natural state.  Experimentation with it 
eventually suggested electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver) and 
copper could also be hammered into useful shapes.  Learning how to 
extract copper from ore and shape it into tools was an important 
milestone in the rise of civilization because it opened the door first 
to making bronze and then to making iron.  Cast copper tools were an 
important advance over stone tools, but were too soft to have a long, 
useful life.  The discovery of bronze, made by alloying a small amount 
of tin with copper, ushered in a 2000- year Bronze Age.  Cast bronze 
tools dramatically increased the efficiency of workers.  Bronze 
weapons were superior to those made of stone and copper.  Armies 
equipped with bronze swords, spears, and arrowheads had a critical 
advantage over more poorly equipped armies.

METALWORKING

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and 
               researched Toolworking.
Cost: 200 Food, 120 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +2 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
Note: The discovery and use of iron to make tools and weapons was one 
of the most important advances in civilization.  Some historians 
consider the use of iron to be one of the distinguishing 
characteristics separating civilization from barbarism because the new 
tools were less brittle, could hold better edges, and held edges for a 
longer time without resharpening.  Most importantly, iron ore was much 
easier to locate than copper and tin, making iron tools cheaper and 
more readily available.  By 1000 B.C., iron tools were being made that 
were as good as the best ones of bronze; by 500 B.C., iron had largely 
supplanted bronze from Europe and Asia.  The expanse and scarcity of 
bronze had restricted its use to the elite and wealthy.  Iron tools 
and weapons were available to nearly everyone.

METALLURGY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and 
               researched Toolworking and Metalworking.
Cost: 300 Food, 180 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +3 attack for your hand- to- hand units.
Note: You must research Metallurgy before you can upgrade to the 
Cataphract.  The use of iron spread throughout the Mediterranean, 
Middle East, and Asia during the first millenium B.C., and some areas 
became especially adept at the new science.  Certain campgrounds added 
to the molten metal increased the strength of the resulting tools.  
New forging techniques also resulted in better tools.  The best iron 
tool workers made superior weapons that were an important advantage in 
battle.

BRONZE SHIELD

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 150 Food, 180 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Helepolis, and  
         missile weapons.
Note: The shield was probably the first piece of military equipment 
developed to protect a warrior.  The earliest were made of wood or 
wood and hide, and were in various shapes.  They were carried in the 
hand or on the forearm and used to ward off blows or missiles in 
battle.  Shield designs and materials evolved to keep up with advances 
in weapons.  Wood and hide shields were easy to smash with bronze 
weapons, so bronze shields were developed.  Bronze shields also 
provided better defense against missiles.  Arrows, especially with 
metal points, were prone to lodge in wooden shields.  This increased 
the weight of the shield and made it more unwieldy.  Roman legions 
threw spears at barbarian formations mainly so they would pierce and 
weigh down the enemy's shield just before closing.  Arrows and other 
missiles deflected off bronze shields without penetration.

IRON SHIELD

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and 
               researched the Bronze Shield.
Cost: 200 Food, 320 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +1 armor against the Ballista, Heleoplis, and 
         missile weapons.
Note: The iron shield replaced the bronze shield when swords and other 
weapons of iron became common. Iron shields were not only expensive to 
make, but also more effective in stopping all hand- to- hand and 
missile weapons.  The basic iron shield remained in use until firearms 
made personal shields on the battlefield obsolete.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR ARCHERS

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 100 Food
Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
Note: Soldiers have sought ways to protect themselves in combat since 
the beginnings of warfare.  Long before the use of metals, leather was 
employed to make helmets and body armor that could stop, or at least 
soften, blows from blunt and edged weapons.  Leather was easy to work 
with, it was light and not overly restrictive of movement, it could be 
fitted to the wearer, and it was usually plentiful and inexpensive.  
Leather remained an important material for body armor throughout the 
Bronze Age due to the high cost of metal armor.  It wasn't until far 
into the Iron Age that metal armor was available for common soldiers.

SCALE ARMOR FOR ARCHERS

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and 
               researched Leather Armor for Archers.
Cost: 125 Food, 50 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
Note: The use of metals to make weapons was matched by using metals to 
make better armor.  Among the first improvements in widespread use 
were breastplates and greaves of bronze.  The breastplate protected 
the torso while greaves protected the legs below the knee.  Both of 
these items protected only the front of the soldier, saving the weight 
and cost that all- around protection would entail.  Breastplates and 
greaves were worn by hoplites of the phalanx, for example, during the 
glory years of Greece.  When used together with a large shield and 
bronze helmet, they left little of the soldier's body exposed to 
attack.  Bronze armor was an example of scale armor, or plate armor, 
in which metal plates provided protection.

CHAIN MAIL FOR ARCHERS

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and
               researched Leather Armor and Scale Armor for Archers.
Cost: 150 Food, 100 Gold
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Archery Range units.
Note: Chain mail was a type of body armor made of iron circlets woven 
together into a cloak.  The interlocking chains of iron protected the 
body somewhat from weapons that slashed or pounded.  Chain mail was 
also flexible and allowed more freedom of body movement than armor 
made of metal plates.  The disadvantages of chain mail were that it 
required a lot of care, was heavy, and was expensive to make.  Chain 
mail was worn only by wealthy or powerful individuals who could 
purchase or demand its manufacture.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR CAVALRY

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 125 Food
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
Note: The same as above.

SCALE ARMOR FOR CAVALRY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and
               researched Leather Armor for Cavalry.
Cost: 150 Food, 50 Gold
Benefit: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
Note: The same as above.

CHAIN MAIL FOR CAVALRY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and
               researched Leather and Scale Armor for Cavalry.
Cost: 175 Food, 100 Gold
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Stable units.
Note: The same as above.

LEATHER ARMOR FOR INFANTRY

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit.
Cost: 75 Food
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy 
units.
Note: The same as above.

SCALE ARMOR FOR INFANTRY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and 
               researched Leather Armor for Infantry.
Cost: 100 Food, 50 Gold
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy 
units.
Note: The same as above.

CHAIN MAIL FOR INFANTRY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Storage Pit, 
and 
               researched Leather and Scale Armor for Infantry.
Cost: 125 Food, 100 Gold
Benefits: This provides a +2 armor for your Barracks and Academy 
units.
Note: The same as above.

_Market Technologies_

WHEEL

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market.
Cost: 175 Food, 75 Wood
Benefits: Villager speed is increased by 30%.
Note: You must research the Wheel before you can build a Chariot or 
Chariot Archer.  The use of the wheel for transport was discovered in 
Sumeria sometime after 3400 B.C. and derived from the potter's wheel 
that appeared first.  The Sumerians learned that in a small cart, a 
donkey could pull a load equal to three times what it could carry on 
its back.  The wheel revolutionized transport and had an important 
impact on the battlefield as well.  By the Bronze Age, chariot archers 
were dominating warfare on the open plains.  The wheel was apparently 
used only for children's toys in ancient America, probably because of 
the rough geography and the lack of an animal like the ox or horse.

WOODWORKING

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market.
Cost: 120 Food, 75 Wood
Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for 
missile 
          weapons.
Note: The small stone blades that characterized the New Stone Age 
(neolithic period) made possible finer techniques in many areas, 
including woodworking.  The larger and more unweildy stone tools of 
the past were capable of crude cutting and carving only.  Better 
woodworking improved other tools and weapons, making possible the bow 
and arrow and spear thrower.

ARTISANSHIP

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market, and 
               researched Woodworking.
Cost: 170 Food, 120 Gold
Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and a +1 range for 
missile
          weapons.
Note: The discovery and use of first copper and then the much more 
useful bronze tools and weapons was a dramatic leap in technology.  
Bronze, especially, posessed a hardness, strength, and ability to hold 
an edge that far surpassed the best stone tools, making it much more 
useful when working with stone, wood, hides, meat, and other 
materials.  Cultures that used bronze had a decided economic and 
military advantage over those that did not.

COINAGE

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market, and 
               researched Gold Mining.
Cost: 200 Food, 100 Gold
Benefits: This provides you with free tribute and increases your Gold 
Mining
          productivity by 25%.
Note: The first true coins were minted in ancient Lydia, now part of 
modern Turkey.  These first coins were made from electrum, a naturally 
ocurring malleable alloy of gold and silver.  Coins, and money in 
general, proved an important facilitator of trade and economic 
progress.  Money acted as a storehouse of value, a medium of exchange, 
and a standard of value, as it continues to do today.  Following the 
conquest of the Persian Empire, the concept of coinage or as adopted 
by the Greeks and spread by them throughout the Hellenistic world.

CRAFTSMANSHIP

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market, and 
               researched Woodworking and Artisanship.
Cost: 240 Food, 200 Wood
Benefits: You receive a +2 woodcutting ability and +1 range for 
missile 
          weapons.
Note: You must research Craftsmanship before you can upgrade to the 
Helepolis.  The discovery of inexpensive ways to make iron was as 
great a technological leap over bronze making as bronze was over 
stone.  Iron surpassed bronze in every critical characteristic- 
hardness, strength, and the ability to hold an edge before needing to 
be resharpened- Plus one.  Iron was much easier to acquire than were 
copper and tin, making it available to all cultures and for all uses.  
Historians consider the ability to make and use iron ore one of the 
distinctions between barbaric and civilized culture.

DOMESTICATION

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary, and 
               researched Market.
Cost: 200 Food, 50 Wood
Benefits: You receive a 75% increase of food production to your farms.
Note: The revolution in agriculture involved both the development of 
animals.  The ability to control and manage herds of milk- and meat- 
producing animals also served to free humans from the drudging and 
desperation of continual hunting and gathering.  Herding did not lead 
necessarily to a sedentary village life, however.  The need to find 
pasture often meant that herding societies remained nomadic, at least 
for part of the year.  Domesticated sheep and goats first appear in 
the archaelogical record around 7500 B.C. in the Zagros Mountains to 
the east of the Tigro and Euphrates River valleys.  Cattle were 
domesticated around 600 B.C. in both the Sahara and Egypt, perhaps 
near simultaneously.  Domestication of cattle alone may have been for 
responsible for a doubling of world human population in a few 
generations.

STONE MINING

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market.
Cost: 100 Food, 50 Stone
Benefits: Your stone mining is increased by +3.
Note: Wood for building was scarce in most places where civilizations 
first arose.  Vast forests just did not exist in these predominately 
arid regions.  The principle building material for common uses was mud 
bricks, sun- dried at first and then fire- baked.  In some areas 
important structures such as temples, palaces, tombs, and 
fortifications were built of stone when it was available.  Much 
information about ancient Egypt was preserved because of the 
permanence of stone.  Equilalent structures in Mesopotamia collapsed 
into mounds of earth after many centuries of neglect and weathering.  
Acquiring non- wood building  materials through brick making or 
quarrying was the object of Stone Mining.

GOLD MINING

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market.
Cost: 120 Food, 100 Wood
Benefits: The gold mining production is increased by +3.
Note: Gold washed down the hills and mountains was probably the 1st 
metal with which humans experimented.  It was sufficiently soft and 
pure to be fashioned easily into objects of beauty for adornment and 
trade.  The value of gold remained high as populations increased 
because of demand for it continued to exceed supply.  Because of this 
value, the trail of gold was followed back to the source of the 
alluvial nuggets.  Gold mining was developed to obtain ore from which 
the pure metal could be extracted.  Many of the most beautiful objects 
that survive from antiquity are made of gold, including hundreds of 
items from the Egyptian Pharaoh, Tutankhamen's tomb.

SIEGECRAFT

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market, and
               researched Stone Mining.
Cost: 190 Food, 100 Stone
Benefits: Villagers can destroy walls and towers, and your stone 
mining 
          ablity is increased by +3.
Note: You must research Siegecraft before you can upgrade to the Heavy 
Catapult.  Despite the written records and depictions of cities and 
fortifications being stormed with the aid of siege equipment, 
starvation was the only certain and effective way to take strongholds 
before the gunpowder age.  The defender of a strong position, with 
adequate troops, food, and water, had all the advantages.  Physical 
assault of strongholds was a difficult proposition accompanied 
regularly only by those armies posessing siegecraft- the necessary 
equipment, resolve, leadership, elan, discipline, and skill.  Examples 
from ancient history were the army of Alexander the Great that 
conducted 20 sieges over a ten- year period, most after the fall of 
the Persian Empire; the Hittites, the Assyrians, and the Romans.

PLOW

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market, and
               researched Domestication.
Cost: 250 Food, 75 Wood
Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms.
Note: The first agriculturists planted seeds by hand using digging 
sticks to open the ground.  The invention of the plow made it possible 
to more easily prepare farmland for planting.  The plow ripped open 
long rows for seeding, burying unwanted plants and cutting unwanted 
roots in the process.  When pulled behind domesticated animals, such 
as oxen, food production per farmer and per acre again increased.  The 
plow has continued to evolve since ancient times.  For example, U.S. 
President Thomas Jefferson invented an improved version.

IRRIGATION

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market, and 
               researched Domestication and the Plow.
Cost: 300 Food, 100 Wood
Benefits: You receive a 75% food production increase to your farms.
Note: One of the key steps in the agricultural revolution was 
understanding and managing irrigation.  Observation of the natural 
world revealed eventually the relationship between planted seeds, good 
soils, sunlight, water, and resultant crops.  Large- scale irrigation 
in both Mesopotamia and Egypt turned the rich but arid soils near the 
rivers into rich farmlands and made possible the rise of the great 
civilizations on earth.  Building the dams and channels to irrigate 
these lands required sophistication of government, construction, and 
engineering not seen previously in any society.

_Government Center Technologies_

ALCHEMY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Government Center.
Cost: 250 Food, 200 Gold
Benefits: You receive a +1 attack ability for your siege and missile 
weapons.
Note: The beginnings of chemistry can be traced back to ancient 
attempts to make gold and silver out of base metals, to find a 
universal cure for disease, and to discover secrets of prolonging 
life.  The experiments and secrecy of the alchemists gave them an aura 
of mystery and magic.  Alchemists were both feared and sought out for 
help.  In an ancient world of little scientific understanding, 
mystery, and magic had power.

ARCHITECTURE

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Government Center.
Cost: 150 Food, 175 Wood
Benefits: Building construction is increased by +33% and the hit 
points of 
         your buildings and walls are increased by +20%.
Note: The art and science of designing and constructing buildings 
arose from the practical need to provide first shelter, then storage 
for food reserves, and then defenses for both.  One of the 
specializations that appeared in the first towns was the builder whose 
skills and techniques continue to evolve today.  Builders and 
architects worked with the materials available to construct buildings 
and fortifications.  Over time new techniques of architecture improved 
the efficiency, strength, and utility of construction.

ARISTOCRACY

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Government Center.
Cost: 175 Food, 150 Gold
Benefits: The speed of your Academy units is increased by +25%.
Note: The Aristocracy was a privileged class, usually hereditary, that 
arose within many cultures.  Aristocrats generally derived their power 
from control of farmland and the attendant infrastructure of people, 
towns, and manufacturing- supported food production.  They kept power 
at the pleasure of the ruler, as long as they acceded to his wishes.  
Aristocrats may also have had military responsibility, especially when 
on the frontier of the kingdom or empire.  In many cultures the 
aristocrats provided the senior officer corps or elite troops of the 
army.  Commanders of the armies and navies of Athens, for example, 
were elected from among the aristocracy of landowners.

BALLISTICS

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Government Center.
Cost: 200 Food, 50 Gold
Benefits: It increases the accuracy of missile and siege weapons.
Note: You must research Ballistics before you can upgrade to the 
Ballista Tower.  The use of missile weapons for war presented 
challenges that hunting with the bow did not.  Hunters stalked game 
and shot ideally at a stationary target.  War targets were often 
armored, partially shielded, or moving.  Effective use of the bow and 
other missile weapons required tactics and training.  Bowmen of low 
skill were taught to fire in barrages at an area rather than at 
specific targets.  Better- trained archers learned to shoot for 
specific parts of the target, including the horses of chariots or 
cavalry.  Ballistics, the study of projectile flight, was derived from 
the name of an ancient missile weapon, the Ballista.

ENGINEERING

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Government Center.
Cost: 200 Food, 100 Wood
Benefits: The range for your siege weapons is increased by +2.
Note: You must research Engineering before you can upgrade to the 
Juggernaught.  Ancient engineers were able to build remarkable 
structures even though the raw materials and tools with which they 
could work were often limited.  The Egyptian pyramids, for example, 
were built of multiton stone blocks using only the fulcrum and lever, 
wedge, ramp, sledge, and rollers.  The pyramid builders of 2600 B.C. 
used tools made only of wood and copper.  Advances in engineering were 
slow and based primarily on practical experience until advances in 
mathematics, especially from the Greeks, led to the new 
experimentation and techniques.

NOBILITY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and
               Government Center.
Cost: 175 Food, 120 Gold
Benefits: There is a hit point bonus of +15% for Cavalry units, 
Chariot, 
          Chariot Archer, Horse Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer.
Note: Within ancient tribal groups an early hierarchical structure 
centered around the strongman, who probably took power in a physical 
contest, led the group, and enjoyed special privileges.  As 
populations increased, the hierarchy expanded.  Layers of nobility, a 
class of society privileged due to fighting prowess or wealth, grew 
between the stronghold, or king, and common people and slaves.  The 
nobility served as administrators and sub- commanders of the army.  
Examples of nobility were the Persian satraps, who ruled provinces of 
the Persian Empire, and Alexander the Great's Companion's, who 
commanded parts of his army and formed the core of his heavy cavalry 
squadrons.

WRITING

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and
               Government Center.
Cost: 200 Food, 75 Gold
Benefits: You share exploration with allies.
Note: The advance of writing is benchmark technology often used to 
separate those cultures that were civilized from those that were 
barbaric.  The key importance of writing is that it allowed 
information to be stored and passed on easily, thereby accelerating 
the accumulation and spread of knowledge.  Writing is believed to have 
been invented between 4000 and 3000 B.C. in Sumeria.  The first 
writing was in simple pictures called pictograms that gradually 
evolved into symbols representing the picture.  Egyptian hieroglyphics 
first appeared between 3300 and 3100 B.C., and are thought to have 
been inspired by cuneiform, the Sumerian symbolic writing.  Writing 
appeared in China after 1600 B.C.

_Temple Technologies_

POLYTHEISM

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Temple.
Cost: 120 Gold
Benefits: Your priests move +40% faster.
Note: The first religions embraced a multitude of gods, each 
associated with one aspect of life.  There might have been a sun god, 
a moon god, a god of the forest, a god of the river, and so on.  The 
multitude of gods was useful in understanding how the world worked and 
in directing petition and prayer for specific help and relief.  The 
existence of multipple gods increased the power of priests because 
each god had special needs and abilities that needed interpretation.  
The ancient Egyptians, for example, worshipped around 2000 gods.  Many 
of these were any local deities, but others were held sacred 
throughout the country.

MONOTHEISM

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Temple.
Cost: 350 Gold
Benefits: Your priests can convert enemy priests and buildings (except 
for 
          Town Centers and Wonders.)
Note: The belief that there is only one God has evolved from the 
Persian religion of Zoroastrianism down through Judaism to many of the 
more popular religions of today.  Whether monotheism is an advancement 
or not is a subjective question.  The widespread popularity over time 
and the fervor of adherents indicates that monotheistic religions have 
more successfully met the requirements of a religion than other 
beliefs that have fallen aside.

MYSTICISM

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and
               Temple.
Cost: 120 Gold
Benefit: Your Priests' hit points are doubled.
Note: Mysticism was a spiritual discipline that sought to achieve 
contact with gods or other perceived realities through contemplation, 
trances, or meditation.  It was induced or enhanced by drugs in some 
cases, and it was part of many ancient beliefs.  For religions seeking 
to explain the great unknown, the apparent ability to communicate 
through media unknown to the average person was a powerful selling 
point.  Because peopledream every night, it was a logical step to 
believe that a few members of the group could somehow make sense of 
dreams or see through the confusion to communicate with another 
dimension.

JIHAD

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Temple.
Cost: 120 Gold
Benefits: It increases the attack, speed, and hit points of villagers, 
but 
          decreases their gathering efficiency.  
Note: The word jihad can mean a crusade or struggle, and comes from 
the holy war of Islam directed against all that defied the word of God 
as written in the Koran.  The equivalent of jihad can occur in any 
society brought to a peak of emotion by religious fervor or other 
means.  The value of the jihad to society is that the people caught up 
in the emotion of the enterprise place their best interests, even 
their lives, second to the purpose of the crusade.  The jihad was 
especially effective at a most desperate time when survival of the 
group hung in the balance.

FANATICISM

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Temple.
Cost: 150 Gold
Benefits: Your Priests rejuvenate 50% faster after converting a unit.
Note: You must research Fanaticism before you can upgrade to Legion.  
Religion evolved to provide a spiritual foundation and understanding 
to life once humans became sufficiently intelligent to ponder the 
great terrifying questions of our existence.  A disturbing byproduct 
of th espread of religion was fanaticism- the intense, unquestioning 
devotion to the ideas and leadership of other humans.  Fanatics were 
capable of ant act, even at great risk to their lives, and were 
especially dangerous enemies in war.

ASTROLOGY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Temple.
Cost: 150 Gold
Benefits: Your Priests convert enemy units 30% faster.
Note: Ancient observers of the stars and the heavens noted the 
correlation between the sun, the seasons, and the success of crops.  
The study of celestial events was an early step in the attempt to 
understand and control the uncertainties of life and became an 
important part of many early religions.  The sun god, Ra, for example, 
was the most powerful of the Egyptian gods.  Priests who could 
determine the start and end of the growing seasons, foretell the 
phases of the moon, and predict terrifying eclipses greatly enhanced 
their power in society.  The power of astrologers increased when their 
subjects believed that the influence of the stars and planets on human 
affairs could be divined from celestial positions and aspects.

AFTERLIFE

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, Market, 
and 
               Temple.
Cost: 275 Gold
Benefit: The range of your Priests is increased by +3.
Note: An important question that ancient religions attempted to 
address was what happens when people die.  Many religions held that 
there was an afterlife, a place or existence that continued once a 
person's time on earth ended.  The promise of an attractive afterlife 
was a powerful inducement for behavior that conformed to the goals of 
a particular religion.  Fervent believers in an afterlife might give 
up their lives to serve their gods.  Well- considered religions that 
offered a good return for acceptance, including an attractive 
afterlife, grew more in power and influence than those that did not.  
Christianity, for example, promised everlasting life to everyone of 
faith, not just to the rich buried in great tombs with servants and 
goods.

=====================================
VI. War!
=====================================

War is something that is bound to happen.  There isn't a whole lot 
that I can say in this spot.  For more war, try the hardest game 
setting, my favorite.  Everyone has their own tactics they like to 
use, so that's up to you.  You shouldn't sacrafice your entire army at 
once.  Hold some back as a backup, when the others are getting 
hammered.  If the other army is still beating the Hel* out of you, 
retreat.  Come back to the S.O.B.'s and take 'em out.  War is 
something that there isn't really one way to do.  Every group that 
you'll encounter will have certain weapons that you don't, unless you 
cheat, that will give them a distinct advantage.  You must look at all 
of your things and come up of something that they don't, and use it 
against them.  You must expose their weakness!!

=====================================
VII. Creating Your Own Scenarios
=====================================

What exactly could I say in this section?  Well, be creative.  Try not 
to cheat your opponents too badly.  For example, don't build a 
fortification surrounding your opponents, so they can't even move.  
Try to build some scenarios which are simple, just like the scenarios 
already within the game.  But the point is to be creative!  If you 
would like to learn more on this subject, check out the manual.  I 
don't really feel like writing too much in this section, since it's 
pretty self- explainable.

=====================================
VIII. Assyrians
=====================================

(1800 to 600 B.C.)

The only thing that I can say to introduce the Assyrians is the fact 
that they were very powerful and fierce.  They have legendary 
barbarity, as well.

_Location_

Assyria was located in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) along the 
Tigris River.  It was settled after Sumer to the south but was 
dominated by the Sumerians both culturally and politically during its 
early history.

_Capital_

The capital of Assyria was Ashur for most of its existence, but moved 
to other sites when kings built new palaces.  Other important cities 
and capitals in the Assyrian homeland were Nineveh, Arbela, Khorsabad, 
and Nimrud.

_Rise to Power_

Around 2000 B.C., Assyria was invaded by Semitic barbarians called the 
Armorites.  By 1800 B.C. an Armorite king of the Assyrians had 
established control over most of northern Mesopotamia.  Their power 
was short- lived in this period, however, due first to the rise of 
Babylonia under Hammurabi and then the rise of the Mitanni in modern 
Syria.

The period 1363 to 1000 B.C. was the Middle Assyrian Empire.  Several 
strong kings reasserted Assyrian independence and then began 
encroaching on neighboring empires.  The Assyrians avoided destruction 
during the catastrophe of 1200 B.C., perhaps they were already 
embracing the new military tactics and weapons that the older kingdoms 
were not.  In the political vacuum of the ancient dark age, the 
Arryrians prospered.  By 1076 B.C. Tiglathpileser I had reached the 
Mediterranean to the west.

The New Assyrian Empire, 1000 to 600 B.C. was the peak of their 
conquests.  Their empire stretched from the head of the Persian Gulf, 
around the Fertile Crescent through Damascus, Phoenicia, Palestine, 
and into Egypt as far south as Thebes.  Their northwestern border was 
the Taurus Mountains of modern Turkey.  Other than the vestiges of 
what had once been the Minoan (Crete), Mycenean (Greece), and Hittite 
(Turkey) cultures, all areas of pre- catastrophe civilization in the 
West were ruled by Assyria.

_Economy_

The Assyrian economy was based on agriculture and herding, but the 
Assyrians also benefited by being situated astride some important 
trade routes.  They are not remembered as traders in their own right, 
perhaps only tax collectors on traders went through.  During the New 
Empire period, they profited from the taxes and tribute they collected 
from their various provinces and vassal states, including even Egypt 
for a few years.

_Religion and Culture_

The Assyrian religion was heavily influenced by that of its 
Mesopotamian predecessors, mainly Sumeria.  The chief god of the 
Assyrians was Ashur, from whom both their culture and capital take 
their names.  Their temples were large zaggurats built of mud bricks, 
like their neighbors to the south.

The principal activity of the rich was hunting from chariots, 
appropriate for such a war- like culture.  Despite their fearsome 
reputation, the Assyrians embraced civilization.  They wrote using 
cuneiform and decorated their cities leberally with reliefs, painted 
stonework, and sculpture.

_Government_

The king was the head administrator of government, supported by local 
provincial governors.  The palace was the site of government.  
Advisors consulted the omens before important decisions were made.  

Provinces and vassal cities were required to pay taxes and tribute in 
the form of food, goods, gold, labor, military supplies, and soldiers 
for the army.  An extensive network of roads and grain depots were 
built during the New Empire to speed communication and armies moving 
to trouble spots.

_Architecture_

The Assyrians built on a large and lavish scale, using mostly mud 
bricks, but also stone that was more readily available than it was 
further south.  Several New Empire kings built extensive palaces and 
decorated them with the booty of war and the tribute of vassal states.  
Palaces were also decorated with painted stone reliefs, extensive 
gardens, and man0 made streams.  A common decorative fixture was the 
LAMASSU- a winged hybrid creature, part bull and part man.

_Military_

The first Assyrian armies were peasant spearmen.  Following a series 
of military reforms around 800 B.C., however, they employed a standing 
army of conscripts and professionals.  This army was better armed, 
armored, and supplied than most of its enemies, giving it important 
advantages.  The New Empire armies benefited from cheap iron used for 
improved swords and armor.

The Assyrians were among the first to adopt the concept of the 
integrated army made up of an infantry core for shock, supported by 
light missile troops and a mobile wing of chariots, camelry, and 
cavalry.  The army was capable of fighting on the plains where 
chariots and then cavalry were critical, as well as in rough terrain 
where horses and chariots had little use.  They campaigned regularly 
to the north and east against barbarians that posed a threat.  The 
elite of the army for many years were the charioteers, followed by the 
cavalry when chariots bacame obsolete.

The Assyrians were accomplished at the art of capturing walled cities.  
Their historical records recount numerous city assaults and the 
brutality that followed.  Inhabitants were either killed or sent to 
another corner of the empire as slaves.

_Decline and Fall_

The brutal policies of subjugation and exorbitant demands for tribute 
and taxes made the Assyrians unpopular masters.  Despite the ferocity 
of their reprisals, vassal states contnually revolted given an 
opportunity.  Weaker kings were unable to hold the empire together in 
the face of internal and external pressure.  In 612 B.C., the capital 
at Nineveh fell to a coalition of Babylonians and Medes.  The 
Babylonians were in revolt (Babylon had been sacked in 648 B.C.) and 
the Medes (from modern western Iran) were seeking retribution for past 
Assyrian invasions of their lands.

The last Assyrian army was defeated soon thereafter by the same 
coalition and the Assyrians as a separate culture disappeared from the 
world's stage.

_Legacy_

The Assyrians are remembered from their boastful inscriptions and 
biblical references as ferocious warriors.  Whether they were 
significantly more brutal than was normal for the time is unclear.

For several centuries, however, they were the greatest military power 
in the civilized world.  Their armies were innovative, and they appear 
to have been among the first to use large bodies of cavalry 
effectively.  They certainly influenced the Persian armies that 
followed them.

They are not remembered for any significant advances in technology, 
philosophy, the arts, or science.  Their cities have been piles of 
rubble for thousands of years now and have not given up fabulous 
treasures that can compare with those of Egypt and Greece.



=====================================
IX. Babylonians
=====================================

(1900 to 539 B.C.)

The Mesopotamian city- state of Babylon twice expanded to become an 
important world empire before being absorbed by Persia.  Its two great 
expansions were sufficiently remarkable to earn it a place in history 
beside the two other great Mesopotamian cultures, the Sumerians and 
Assyrians.  Between its Old and New Empire periods, Babylonia devolved 
back into a small but rich city- state that was captured occasionally 
by its neighbors.

The predominate inhabitants of Babylon changed several times over its 
existence, although the culture remained relatively constant and 
distinct.  The Amorites, the Kassites, and the Chaldeans were all 
Babylonians at least once.

_Location_

The Babylonians took their name from their capital and only major 
city, Babylon, located on the Euphrates River west of Sumeria and 
south of Assyria.  It was well- placed on the river for agriculture 
and for trade, but had no natural defenses.  A strong leader and 
strong army were needed to defend it.  Determined attackers were able 
to sack the city on numerous occasions during its history when such a 
leader or army was not available.

_Rise To Power_

Babylonia was founded as a kingdom around 1900 B.C. by Semitic Amorite 
barbarians who overran much of Canaan, Akkad, and Sumer one hundred 
years earlier.  In 1792 B.C. the small kingdom was inherited by 
Hammurabi who ruled until 1750.  During those 42 years, Hammurabi 
extended the kingdom to ecompass all of Sumer to the east and Akkad to 
the north.  He also defeated the barbarian Gutians in the Zagros 
Mountains to the northeast who had previously sacked Akkad.  He also 
pushed back the Elamites (east of Sumer) and the Assyrians (north of 
Akkad).  This was the first great Babylonian empire.

Following Hammurabi's death, the empire fell into gradual decline.  In 
1595 B.C. Hittites drove down the Euphrates and sacked Babylon, 
plundering the city and deposing the Amorite kings.  This ended the 
first empire.  Within 20 yearsm new invaders called the Kassites had 
settled around Babylon, establishing a new dynasty.  The Kassites were 
neither Semetic nor Indo- European, and probably came from east of the 
Zagros Mountains.  

The Kassites ruled Babylon for several centuries before being coquered 
by the Assyrians in 1158 B.C.  Descendants of the Amorites had 
restored control by 1027 B.C.

During the Eighth and Seventh Centuries, the Chaldeans, new Semitic 
immigrants to the area, and the Assyrians fought for control of 
Babylon.  The Assyrians claimed sovereignty for a while but sacked the 
city once as punishment for rebellion.

A Chaldean sheik seized the Babylonian throne and then destroyed the 
Assyrians with the help of the Medes.  The Chaldean Dynasty and the 
New Empire lasted from 626 to 539 B.C.  The revived Babylonians 
overran most of the Assyrian Empire from the Persian Gulf to the 
boarders of Egypt.

In 597 B.C. Nebuchadrezzar II captured Jerusalem and forced its king 
and nobles into exile.  When the puppet ruler of Jerusalem rebelled, 
the city was taken again in 586 B.C. after an eighteen- month siege.  
This time much of the population was deported to Babylon and their 
descendants remained there until released by the Persians.  This 
period of Hebrew history was called the Babylonian Captivity.

_Economy_

The basic economy of Babylonia was typical for Mesopotamia at the 
time.  Irrigation and dikes controlled the waters of the Euphrates 
River, providing bountiful harvests of grain, vegetables, and fruit in 
normal years.  These foods were supplemented by herds of sheep and 
some cattle.

The Babylonians traded food surpluses for raw materials like copper, 
gold, and wood, which they used to manufacture weapons, household 
objects, jewelry, and other items that could be traded.

The fabulous wealth of the New Empire (626 to 539 B.C.) derived from 
controlling the east- west and north- south trade, primarliy thanks to 
control of Phoenicia, Syria, and the other Levant ports.  This area 
had been the nexus of civilized trade for over a thousand years, and, 
for that reason, the prize for every empire and pseudo- empire of the 
age.  Not long after the end of the Babylonian New Empire, the shift 
of much trade to the central and western Mediterranean reduced the 
importance of this area.

_Religion and Culture_

The Babylonians worshipped many gods, but chief was of these was 
Murduk, god of the city of Babylon.  Marduk was represented by a 
dragon in the artwork that decorated the city.  Festivals were held 
throughout the year in honor of specific gods to assure their favor.  
The New Year festival for Marduk assured the fertility in their 
fields.

For a brief time the New Empire was among the richest in the world.  
The city reflected that wealth in its extensive and highly decorated 
monuments.  The interior of the Temple of Marduk was reportedly 
converted with gold.

At the center of a great and rich trading empire, the people of 
Babylon had access to exotic goods and manufactured items throughout 
the world.

_Government_

The New Empire government of Babylon adopted many of the Assyrian 
imperial practices, which probably contributed to its own short life.  
The king had overall administrative power, in addition to his central 
role in important religious rituals.  Governors ruled important 
provinces on behalf of the king, but most of these were Babylonians 
appointed from outside the local area.  Local puppets were often left 
in place to rule local kingdoms, but this occasionally led to revolt, 
as in the case of Jerusalem.

_Architecture_

The city of Babylon was destroyed and rebuilt several times, usually 
on top of the old ruins.  Buildings and walls were constructed of mud 
bricks, first sun- baked, and then baked with fire.

The Babylon of the New Empire period was one of the wealthiest cities 
in the world.  The Chaldean kings rebuilt the city and established its 
reputation for splendor for all time.  The Euphrates River passed 
through the middle of the city and was directed around its four sides 
through a moat.  Inside the moat were double walls.  The Greek 
historian Herodotus claimed that the outer wall was so wide that a 
chariot with four horses could drive along it.  There were several 
city gates, each named after an important god.  The Ishtur gate opened 
on the sacred Processional Way that led to the ziggurat and Temple of 
Marduk.  The gate, sacred way, and temples were decorated with bright 
blue glazed tiles depicting real and fantasy animals in relief.

The two sides of the city were connected by a bridge.  The east side 
contained the palace and temples, including many ziggaurats.  The 
greatest of these, built by Nebuchanezzar II, had seven levels with a 
small temple to Marduk at the top.  This zaggurat was probably the 
Tower of Babel mentioned in the Bible.  Nebuchanezzar also built the 
Hanging Gardens of Babylon, a multistoried ziggurat decorated with 
trees and plants to resemble a mountain.  According to legend, the 
gardens were built to remind one of his wives of her mountain 
homeland.  The Hangine Gardens were one of the seven wonders of the 
ancient world.

_Military_

Little is known of the Babylonian military from either the Old or New 
Empires, although Hammurabi's army of the Old Empire may have made 
important use of chariots when these were first coming into use.

The New Empire armies probably copied much from the Assyrians.  This 
would suggest that Babylonians made extensive use of cavaly, 
especially mounted bowmen.  Foot troops probably used iron weapons and 
wore iron helmets and some chain mail armor.  The Babylonians and 
their less advanced allies, the Medes, took three leavily fortified 
Assyrian cities in short succession, suggesting they had mastered the 
Assyrian techniques for storming cities.

_Decline and Fall_

Following seven turbulent years that saw three new kings in succession 
and two rebellions, in 556 B.C. the last of the Chaldean Dynasty, 
Nabonidus, took the throne of Babylon.  He worshipped the moon god, 
Sin, but neglected local affairs and important religious rituals 
associated with other gods.  For several years he did not perform the 
important New Year festival in the name of Marduk, the deity of 
Babylon, that renewed the fertility of the land.  He also introduced 
reforms that gave effective control of temple finances to himself.

The unrest and dissatisfaction these events fostered came at a time 
when a new power to the east, Persia, had been gradually expanding and 
spreading its influence.  Under Cyrus I, the Persians had first 
overthrown their masters. the Medes, and then expanded to the 
northwest into Anatolia.  During these conquests, Cyrus demonstrated a 
high degree of tolerance and clemency that encouraged others not to 
resist.

When Cyrus turned against the Babylonians, he was welcomed by a large 
segment of the population, including the influential priests.  Cyrus 
first defeated Nabonidus in battle at Opis.  Nabonidus fled to Babylon 
but the city surrendered without a fight on October 12, 539 B.C., and 
the last Babylonian king went into captivity.  The Jews and other 
peoples held in Babylonian captivity were freed.  The entire New 
Empire of Babylon became part of the Persian Empire and Babylonia 
ceased to exist as a separate entity and culture.

_Legacy_

The first Babylonian empire is best known for the Law Code of King 
Hammurabi, circa 1750 B.C., purportedly handed down by the god Shamah.  
The laws themselves are preserved on a 90- inch stone stele that was 
uncovered in Susa in modern times.  It has been carted off by the 
Elamites following their sack of Babylon in 1158 B.C.

The New Empire of Babylon was noted especially for its wealth and 
grandeur.  This was reported in Old Testament accounts from the period 
of the Hebrew Babylonian Captivity and by the Greek historian 
Herodotus who visited the city.  The most impressive features of the 
city were its walls, the Ishtar Gate, the ziggurat and temple to 
Marduk, the Processional Way, and Hanging Gardens.



=====================================
X. Chosens
=====================================

(2333 to 108 B.C.)

The Korean Peninsula was invaded by successive waves of Neolithic 
peoples, but the culture of the area changed little until the use of 
bronze implements began around the fifteenth century B.C.  The Bronze 
Age brought significant change to Korea.  Recovered bronze spear 
points and arrowheads indicate conquest and warfare were widespread.  
Towns protected by earthen walls appeared.  Funerary dolmens (rock 
shelters covered by enormous capstones) indicate the rise of a 
stratified political and social structure. 

The Bronze Age in Korea lasted until the fourth century B.C.  During 
the Bronze Age, the first large political groupings of walled town 
states arose.  The most advanced of these was Ancient Chosen.

_Location_

The state of Ancient Chosen was located in the valleys of the Liao and 
Taedong Rivers, in the southwestern part of what is now North Korea.  
It occupied the Taedong River basin originally and spread its 
influence gradually over a large region of the peninsula.

_Capital_

The Ancient CVhosen capital was Wanggom- song, now modern P'yongyang 
(the capital of North Korea).

_The Rise To Power_

The power of Ancient Chosen grew from around 2333 B.C. to the end of 
the fourth century B.C.  The Ancient Chosen expanded possibly due to 
better agriculture and population growth, better use of newly 
available iron weapons, better leaders, or all of the above.  When the 
Chinese kingdom of Yen encountered the Ancient Chosen culture, they 
referred to them as being arrogant and cruel, which suggests that the 
Ancient Chosen were formidable warriors.

Despite the apparent strength of Ancient Chosen at the end of the 
fourth century, they went into decline, nevertheless, following the 
arrival of the Yen kingdom across the Liao River.  The Chinese 
overlord in control of the Liaotung Peninsula changed several times 
during the next century and the political upheaval fostered an 
immigration of Chinese political, military, and economic power into 
Ancient Chosen.  One refugee, named Wiman, built a power base among 
the other refugees and eventually drove the ANcient Chosen king from 
his throne around 190 B.C.

The new kingdom, called Wiman Chosen, was a hybrid of Korean and 
Chinese influences.  Due to its superior military and economic 
strength, it subjugated smaller Korean states to its north, east, and 
south.  This placed the Wiman Chosen between the now dominant Han 
Chinese and the remaining Korean states in the south, allowing it to 
control trade between the two regions.  For three generations, the 
Wiman Chosen dominated north central Korea.

_Economy_

The principal economic activity of Bronze and early Iron Age Korea was 
agriculture.  Rice was the main food crop of southern Korea.  Raising 
livestock (oxen, horses, pigs, and dogs) was more important in the 
north.  The basic farming unit was the village, made up of headmen, 
free peasants, and a few slaves.  Peasants and slaves worked mainly on 
communal farms.  There were some peasant- owned lands as well.  The 
fre peasants were heavily taxed and provided labor to the state.  They 
were not permitted to bear arms or serve in the armies.

_Religion and Culture_

The leaders of the early walled towns in Korea performed both 
political and religious functions.  The dignity and authority of these 
leaders was enhanced by their acknowledged descent from a sun god.  
Political and religious power split gradually into two separate 
functions as the confederation grew in size.  Rituals were thereafter 
directed by specialists.

The primitive religion of prrehistoric Korea was based on animism and 
shomanism.  Primative priets were magicians who attempted to move the 
gods by evocation.  By the time of Ancient Chosen, priests prayed to 
the gods humbly and earnestly for favor.

The ancient Koreans believed in the immortality of the soul and buried 
their elite with elaborate ritual.  They also practiced divination.  
The two most important festivals of the year were tied to the growing 
season.  In the spring, they prayed for abundance, and in the fall, 
they celebrated thanksgiving.

_Government_

Village communities were governed by a ruling elite that kept order, 
allocated land and resources, collected taxes, and provided security.  
The individual communities were held together in confederation by 
military and economic means.  Ancient Chosen took the name wang (king) 
for its leader about the time that the nearby Chinese kingdom of Yen 
employed the same title.

_Military_

Little is known about the armies of Ancient Chosen except that they 
were standing armies and not levies of peasants.  Evidence of horses 
and chariots is not widespread, suggesting that only the richest 
warriors could afford these enhancements.  Bronze spear points and 
arrowheads from the early days of the Ancient Chosen suggest an army 
of spearmen and archers.  Later finds include bronze daggers and 
spears of distinctive styles, iron daggers, and iron spear points.  
The daggers suggest that these short weapons were used by infantry for 
close combat in addition to spears.

The prowess of Ancient Chosen armies can be inferred from their 
expansion and dominance of the region and the comments about Ancient 
Chosen recorded by their Chinese neighbors.

_Decline and Fall_

Unified China under Han Dynasty was not pleased by Wiman Chosen's 
growth and control of eastward trade, and was concerned about a 
possible alliance between Wiman Chosen and the Hsiung-nu (barbarians 
then expanding out of Mongolia into Manchuria).  The aggressive 
Emperor Wu of Han launched an attack against the Wiman Chosen when 
diplomacy failed to bring them to heel.  The Wiman Chosen were a tough 
adversary but were weakened by defections and collaborations among the 
nobility.  The Wiman Chosen capital fell in 108 B.C., and the kingdom 
came to an end.

_Legacy_

The legacy of the Ancient Chosen was a Korean culture that remained 
separate from that of China, despite the proximity and influence of 
that enormous neighbor.


=====================================
XI. Egyptians
=====================================

(5000 to 30 B.C)

The Egyptian culture was one of the oldest and most long- lived of 
antiquity.  It benefited from an abundance of good farmland, nearby 
mineral resources, and a good strategic position.  Despite occasional 
invasion and internal strife, it endured as a distinctive culture for 
nearly 5000 years.

_Location_

Ancient Egypt occupied almost the same area as modern Egypt does 
today.  Its civilization stayed very close to the Nile River.  Because 
it was almost entirely surrounded by desert, enemies could approach 
only from the west and southeast along the Mediterranean coast, from 
the south down the river valley, or directly over the sea.

_Capital_

During its long history, the capital of Egypt was located at various 
times in Heirakonpolis, Memphis, Herakleopolis, Thebes, It- towy, 
Akhetaten, Tanis, Sais, and Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.  Greek 
overlords, the Ptolemaic dynasty, ruled from here until 30 B.C.

_Rise of Power_

Agriculture was brought to the Nile Valley prior to 5000 B.C. by 
immigrants from the highlands of Palestine.  By 3000 B.C., acriculture 
had spread southward up the Nile.  Flooding was under control and 
irrigation put much more land under cultivation.  The adundance of 
food led to large populations and increased wealth for the area.

The early history of Egypt was a period of consolidation.  Two 
separate kingdoms rose and vied for power along the river.  Around 
3100 B.C., King Menes of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and 
established the First Dynasty.

Between 3100 B.C. and 1300 B.C., the Egyptians struggled with Nubians 
and Kushites up the Nile to the south.  Forts and garrisons held the 
frontier but during periods of weakness these were destroyed.  Around 
1300 B.C. the Nubians suffered an important defeat and were 
neutralized as a thread for about 500 years.

Egypt's Dynasty XIII, 1783 to 1640 B.C., was very weak.  During this 
period the frontier forts to the south were lost and Semitic 
immigrants from the east moved into the delta.  These immigrants, 
called the Hyskos, took control of the entire delta region in 1674 
B.C.  The Hyskos eventually adopted Egyptian culture and language, and 
introduced the horse and chariot.

The New Kingdom was founded by Dynasty XVIII in 1552 B.C., following a 
successful war to drive out the Hyskos.  This dynasty was the great 
age of the warrior pharaohs and Egyptian empire.  The prevent further 
incursions from the east, the Egyptians attempted to establish control 
over the kingdoms in the Levant and Palestine.  During this period 
they vied for control with the Hittites and Mitanni, as well as the 
local kings.  The Egyptians were the dominant power in the Near East 
until around 1200 B.C. when the entire area was overrun by barbarians.

_Economy_

Egypt was an agricultural society dependent on the water and soil 
brought down each year by the Nile from the highlands of Ethiopia.  
Extensive irrigation made it possible to farm fields not adjacent to 
the river but still close enough to be inundated each year and receive 
new sediments.  The principalcrops were wheat and barley that were 
used to make bread and beer, the staples of their diet.  They also 
grew fruits and vegetables and raised cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, 
geese, ducks, and pigeons.  The adundance of food meant a large 
population and allowed the export of food.

The Nile passes through several hilly regions and some of these were 
rich in minerals.  The nearby Sinai Peninsula also held mineral 
riches.  Unlike some other ancient cultures, the Egyptians had 
relatively easy access to copper and gold, further increasing their 
wealth.  The hills were sources of granite, limestone, and sandstone 
that they used for construction.

The Egyptians were one of the first cultures to build boats and they 
eventually took these out into the Mediterranean.  Egypt became an 
important Mediterranean part of call as trade increased because it was 
it was a rich market for both buying and selling.  Principal Egyptian 
exports were grain, food, linen, perfume, and manufactured goods.  
Important imports were timber, slaves, silver, horses, pottery, and 
wine.

_Religion and Culture_

The Egyptian religion had over 2000 gods, though only a few of these 
were predominant.  The important gods had a home town where their 
principal temple was located.  One of the most important was Ra, the 
sun god, understandably critical to an agricultural society.

They believed in a life after death.  They referred to this as the 
"next world," and thought it was somewhere to the west.  They 
developed elaborate burials and embalming to preserve the body for 
this second life.  Goods and servants were buried with royalty and 
nobles to serve them.

_Government_

The ancient Egyptians believed their kings were descended from the sun 
god, Ra.  They believed they could communicate with the gods through 
the king.

The king had absolute power but was required to perform several 
important duties.  He was responsible for the harvest and irrigation 
of crops.  He directed the government, trade, and foreign policy.  He 
enforced the laws and led the army.  During the New Kingdom, the 
pharoahs usually commanded their armies in the field.

Reporting directly to the pharaoh were two viziers, one for Lower 
Egypt based in Memphis, and one for Upper Egypt based in Thebes.  
Below the viziers were rural districts controlled by governors and 
towns controlled by mayors.  These officials carried out the pharaoh's 
orders and collected taxes.  Scribes kept the records.

The Egyptians had no coinage until they were conquered by Alexander 
the Great.  All workers paid taxes by turning over a percentage of 
their production, whether it was fish, grain, trade goods, pottery, or 
other goods.  In addition, each household had to provide a laborer for 
several weeks each year for mining or public works.  The pyramids were 
probably built by laborers putting in their annual service.

_Military_

The Egyptians were among the first cultures to possess the necessary 
population and wealth to build standing armies of professional 
soldiers.  Prior to the Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot, which 
were quickly adopted by the Egyptians in turn.  The dominance of the 
Near East by New Kingdom Egypt, from 1600 to 1200 B.C., was primarily 
due to the large and powerful chariot armies sent into battle there.  
These chariots carried a driver and composite bow archer and were the 
elite of the army.

_Decline and Fall_

Egypt survived the catastrophe by 1200 B.C. by fighting off several 
major attempted invasions.  They went into decline, nevertheless, 
following the death of Rameses III who was the last of the great 
warrior pharaohs.  Their decline was partly due to trade coming to a 
virtual halt for several generations.  A series of weak kings and 
civil wars over succession to the throne also eroded their strength.

In 728 B.C., Egypt was conquered by Nubia and held for 60 years.  In 
665 B.C., the Assyrians completed a conquest of Egypt by sacking 
Thebes.  A new native Egyptian dynasty arouse in 664 B.C., eventually 
throwing out the Nubians and asserting their independence from Assyria 
by stopping payment of tribute.  In 525 B.C., Egypt was conquered 
again from the east, this time by Combryses II of Persia.  When the 
Persians faltered in their war with the Greeks, the Egyptians 
reclaimed their independence briefly before succombing once more to 
Persian invasion by 332 B.C.  Within a year, however, the Persians 
themselves were gone, destroyed by Alexander the Great who was 
accepted by the Egyptians as their pharaoh.

Greeks ruled Egypt as overlords from the time of Alexander the Great 
until 30 B.C. when Cleopatra VII, th elast of the Ptolemaic dynasty, 
and Mark Antony were defeated by Octavian.  Egypt thereafter became 
part of the Roman Empire.

_Legacy_

The ancient Egyptians are remembered for the quality and quanity of 
cultural objects that have survived to the present, including the 
Pyramids, the Sphinx, the treasures of Tutankhamen's tomb, the other 
monuments and temples of the Nile Valley, hieroglyphics, mummies, and 
papyrus.  They are also rememberdd in the West because of their 
prominent role in the history of ancient Israel as recounted in the 
Old Testament.



=====================================
XII. Greeks
=====================================

Under Construction

=====================================
XIII. Hittites
=====================================

Under Construction

=====================================
XIV. Minoans
=====================================

(2200 to 1200 B.C.)

Primitive agricultural communities sprang up around the Aegean Sea by 
6000 B.C., but this area lagged behind Egypt and Mesopotamia in 
advancing toward civilization.  For reasons not yet understood, the 
island- based Minoan culture made a sudden leap forward around 2000 
B.C. and became the first civilization of Europe.  The sudden take- 
off may have been stimulated by trading contact with Mesopotamia 
through Levant ports of through contact with Egypt.  One theory 
suggests that refugees from Egypt during a time of turmoil may have 
emigrated to Crete and brought technology and ideas with them.  

_Location_

The Minoan culture was centered on the island of Crete, but extended 
to other nearby islands, including Thera and Rhodes.  They may have 
colonized the Anatolian coast at Miletus and elsewhere.  By the 
extension of trade, they influenced the developing Greek culture on 
the mainland and other Aegean islands.

_Capital_

The palace at Knossos on Crete was the capital of the Minoan 
civilization.  It remained a hidden ruin until rediscovered and 
revealed in the twentieth century.

_Rise of Power_

The Minoans were an economic power, not a military one.  They 
preserved their economic advantages by apparently controlling ship 
traffic in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas.  For approximately 800 
years, they dominated trade in these regions. They were so secure on 
their islands, protected by their ships, that they never fortified 
their cities.

_Economy_

Crete was rich in natural resources, including farmland, water, 
supplies, timber, copper, building stone, and access to the sea.  The 
Minoans were prosperous thanks to agriculture and fishing, but grew 
rich primarily on trade.

The Minoans grew grain, fruit, herbs, and olives.  Grain, wine, olive 
oil, timber, ceramics, and manufactured goods were theri principal 
exorts.  They imported tin, silver, gold, linen, luxury items, and raw 
materials for manufacturing.

_Religion and Culture_

The high standard of living, the relative abundance of food and other 
good things, and the security of their island homes gave the Minoans 
an outlook on life substantially different from other contemporary 
cultures.  Perhaps because life was good, worship and communication 
with gods was not stressed.  They built no great temples.  Their 
religion was dominated by female goddesses who protected the 
household, the crops, and the animals.  The Minoans made regular 
offerings of food, statues, and other objects.

The Minoans may have practiced human sacrifice at one time.  There is 
a famous tale of a minotaur, half man, half bull, who lived in a 
labyrinth beneath the palace.  Young people were sacrificed to the 
minotaur each year.  The high priest or king may have worn a bull mask 
for the sacrifice, creating the illusion of half man, half animal.

They believed in an afterlife and buried the dead with food and 
possessions that would be of use.  Two sacred symbols were bull horns 
and the double- sided axe.

The Minoans developed a hieroglyphic writing system around 2000 B.C., 
perhaps following trading contract with the Egyptians.  By 1900 B.C., 
they had developed a new script now called Linear A.  Athird script 
called Linear B came into use as Knossus around 1450 B.C.  To date, 
onlu Linear B has been deciphered, but most of the surviving examples 
are accounting records that reveal little about their history and 
culture.

Surviving artwork shows the people of Crete engaging in the sport of 
bull- jumping.  The significance of this activity is not known.  Young 
men and women are depicted approaching a charging bull, grabing it by 
the horns, and somersaulting over the animal's back to land behind it.

The everyday life of the Minoans was pleasant and relatively free of 
war and unrest, as witnessed by the richness and exuberance of their 
frescos, wall paintings, and decorative objects.

_Government_

The great palace at Knossus was also a giant warehouse.  The 
distribution of food and other goods may have been organized from 
here.

The only king whose name survives was Minos.  It may be that the word, 
Minos, referred to the office, not the man, like the Egyptian term, 
pharaoh.

_Military_

The Minoans had little apparent need for an army, relying instead on 
their navy to keep any enemies from approaching.  Minoan ships were 
galleys, manned by rowers on both sides.  Narrow galleys were fast and 
maneuverable, allowing them to overtake slower sailing ships of the 
day.  They did not employ rams at this early date, according to the 
evidence of surviving artwork.

_Decline and Fall_

The idyllic life of the Minoans was disrupted by natural disasters.  
The archaelogical remains indicate that the palace of Knossus was 
destroyed by an earthquake in 1700 B.C. and rebuilt.  The nearby 
island of Thera was partially sunk by a volcanic eruption and the 
resulting tidal wave probably struck Crete, causing extensive damage.  
The Minoan culture suffered from recurrent earthquakes and the Thera 
explosion, but the extent of the damage and its effect on their 
civilization is debated.

There are two main scenarios for the end of the Minoan culture.  
According to the oldest theory, mainland Greeks invaded around 1450 
B.C., essentially destroying the culture, although it lingered for 700 
years more until mainland Greece itself was overrun.  In the second 
scenario, based on more recent research, the Minoans suffered through 
disaster and a resulting loosening of their control of sea trade and 
movement, but did not succomb to the mainland Greeks.  The Minoans 
were instead destroyed along with the Myceneans on the mainland by 
barbarians as part of the catastrophe of 1200 B.C.  Evidence suggests 
that by 1180 B.C., the Cretans had moved from coastal towns and 
palaces to defensive city sites high in the hills.  Attacks and the 
threat of further attacks were the probable cause of this shift.

_Legacy_

The Minoans are remembered today for their fabulous palace and 
frescoes at Knossos, now partially restored.  It may have been the 
largest and most beautiful palace of the late Bronze Age.  They are 
also remembered for their mysterious writings, some of which continue 
to defy linguists.

=====================================
XV. Persians
=====================================

Under Construction

=====================================
XVI. Phoenicians
=====================================

(1200 to 146 B.C.)

There was never a country or empire called "Phoenicia."  The 
historical name of this culture was coined by the Greeks and was not 
their name.  The name Phoenicia derives from the Greek word Phoenix, 
meaning in this case a dark red or purple- brown color.  The 
phoenicians were renowned for their cloth dyes, especially an 
expensive purple one popular with royalty.  Because Greek language and 
writings were preserved in abundance, versus Phoenician texts which 
are very scant, the name stuck.

_Location_

The Phoenicians appeared on the historical scene around 1200 B.C., a 
time when most of the civilized world was being overrun by barbarians.  
In the political and military void of a 400- year ancient dark age, 
this small group of traders were able to prosper and gradually expand 
their influence.  Instead of acquiring a physical empire of contiguous 
lands, they gradually built, instead, a large trading and colonial 
network from their home base of a few independent cities along the 
coast of what is now Lebanon.

They were the remnants of the Canaanites, a Semitic people who 
occupied city- states in this region prior to 1200 B.C.  The most 
important of their early cities were Tyre, Sidon, Berytus (modern 
Beirut), and Byblos.  These coastal cities were hemmed in on the land 
side by the Lebanon Mountains.  The only onvious opportunity for 
expansion and economic gain was by sea.

_Rise To Power_

Prior to the catastrophe of 1200 B.C., Canaanite traders had been 
restricted to perhaps the Levantine coast, Egypt, and the southern 
coast of Anatolia.  The Minoans on Crete blocked entrance into the 
Aegean, controlled all trade further west.  The Canaanite coastal 
towns were usually controlled by Egypt, and one of their principal 
businesses was providing wood (the cedars of Lebanon) to the Nile 
region.

The Minoan civilization was destroyed in 1200 B.C., removing most of 
the constraints on Mediterranean and Aegean Sea trading bu others.  
The Phoenicians were the most aggressive of those attempting to fill 
the void.  Their cities were well- positioned for this enterprise by 
being located literally in the center of the known world.  The Aegean, 
Mesopotamia, and Egypt were all roughly equidistant to the west, 
south, and east.  For any of the three regions to trade with another, 
the easiest trade route was through the Phoenician cities.

By the ninth century B.C., the ancient dark ages was nearing an end.  
The Phoenicians were growing rich as traders and this attracted 
enemies, principally the Assyrians.  In the face of repeated assaults 
or heavy tribute payments at the least, the Tyrians adopted the 
strategy of establishing colonies to the west.  Colonies were removed 
from the grasp of the Assyrians and also helped with the exploitation 
of metals and trade in the western Mediterranean.

The most important Phoenician colony was at Carthage, established 
around 700 B.C.  Other important colonies were in Sicily, Corsica, 
Sardinia, and Spain.  Over the next 500 years, Carthage grew rapidly 
in size and power.  Most of its wealth came from the ore mines of 
Spain.  Carthage fought for control of the western Mediterranean with 
the Greeks first and then the Romans.

_Economy_

The early Phoenician economy was built on timber sales, wood working, 
and cloth dyeing.  Dyes ranging in color from a pink to a dark purple 
were made from the rotting gland of a sea snail.  Gradually the 
Phoenician city- states became centers of maritime trade and 
manufacturing.  Having limited natural resources, they imported raw 
materials and fashioned them into more valuable objects that could be 
shipped profitably, such as jewelry, metalwork, furniture, and 
housewares.  They borrowed techniques and styles from all corners of 
the world that they touched as traders.

While exploring the western Mediterranean, they either discovered 
large metal deposits in Spain or took them from Greeks who may have 
been there first.  By fortifying sites on Sicily and North Africa, 
they effectively denied other traders access to the riches of Spain, 
the west Africa coast (gold, exotic woods, and slaves), and Britain 
(tin, which was used to make bronze.)

_Religion and Culture_

Phoenician religion was polytheistic and their other gods required 
continual sacrifices to forestall disaster, especially Boal, the god 
of storms.  No significant Phoenician temple has yet been discovered, 
but most of their ancient cities lie buried under modern cities.  The 
Bible recounts human sacriices by the Phoenicians but this practice 
was eventually stopped.  It carried on in Carthage, however.  A 
cemetary outside of Carthage was found to obtain thousands of urns of 
infants sacrificed to the gods.  (BURN BABY BURN!!)  Noble families of 
Carthage got into the habit of substituting animals and slaves for 
their children, but following a military disaster in 320 B.C., 500 
infants from the best families were sacrificed.  (HA HA!!)

Early Phoenician culture was influenced to a large degree by their 
Semitic origins and Semitic neighbors.  Their later culture was 
heavily influenced by the Greeks.  There are few objects known today 
that are clearly Phoenician.

One of their lasting copntributions to civilization was a proto- 
alphabet where each letter represented a consonant.  This cut down 
significantly the number of symbols required to make written words.  
When written, the vowels were implied.  Later advances by the Greeks 
added symbols for vowel sounds, creating the first true alphabet.

_Military_

When the Phoenicians began competing with the Greeks for trade and 
colonies, the contest led to construction of the first ships built 
expressly for war.  These were rowed galleys armed with a ram at the 
front and marines for boarding.  Sea warfare grew in importance during 
the fifth century when Persia fought the Greek city- states for 
control of the Aegean, western Anatolia, and eastern Mediterranean.  
By this time the Phoenician cities were under control of Persia. 
Phoenician ships made up the bulk of the Persian fleet that was 
defeated at Salamis in 480 B.C.  Phoenician galleys of the time were 
larger and less maneuverable than their Greek counterparts, and this 
was a fatal shortcoming in restricted waters.

The Carthaginian navy dominated the early Punic Wars with Rome, but 
the Romans captured a Carthaginian ship that went aground and built 
duplicates.  The Romans eventually cleared the Mediterranean of 
Carthaginian ships and carried the wars to a successful conclusion in 
North Africa.

The Carthiginians had the only significant land army that can be 
considered Phoenician in derivation.  Their greatest general was 
Hannibal, who invaded Italy from Spain, passing the Alps in winter 
with his army and elephants.  Most of his troops were Celts enlisted 
from Spain and Gaul.  One strength of his army was cavalry from North 
Africa that was usually able to drive off the Roman cavalry, surround 
the Roman infantry, and help annihilate it.  The Romans defeated 
Hannibal eventually, not by fighting him, but by attacking where he 
wasn't- Spain first, and then North Africa.

_Decline and Fall_

The Phoenician home cities were periodically under the thumb of one 
eastern conqueror after another from roughly 900 to 332 B.C.  They 
were never strong enough to hold off the powerful armies from Assyria, 
then Babylon, and then Persia, although they were often rich enough to 
buy them off.  In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great took them one by one, 
ending their on- again, off- again independence.  They became Greek 
cities and lost their identity as Phoenician for good.

The Carthaginians lasted another 200 years.  Having held off Greek 
expansion past Sicily successfully for many centuries, they met their 
match in the more populous and better organized Romans.  At the end of 
the Punic Wars in 146 B.C., the people of Carthage were carried off to 
slavery and the city was destroyed.

_Legacy_

The Phoenician tradition as traders carried on in Lebanon down through 
the years to modern times, regardless of who was in political control.  
Phoenicians are also recalled as great mariners.  They are believed to 
have been the first civilized culture to reach Britain and the Azores.  
There is evidence that Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa on 
commission by the Egyptians around 600 B.C.  There is some 
questionable evidence that they reached the New World.

Their most important contribution was their revised alphabet, which 
they spread around the known world.  When further refined and spread 
by the Greeks and Romans, it became the alphabet used today by most 
western cultures.

=====================================
XVII. Shangs
=====================================

Under Construction

=====================================
XVIII. Sumerians
=====================================

(5000 to 2230 B.C.)

The Sumerians were one of the earliest civilizations.  Their growth 
and expansion was dependent on rich river valley farmlands.  They were 
not as fortunate as others in terms of mineral resources or strategic 
position, however, and did not enjoy the existence of the Egyptians.  
They are considered one of the most important early cultures, 
nevertheless, because of the many advances attributed to them.  
Because their location was weak in terms of defense and poor in terms 
of resources, they were forced to innovate.  In many ways they were 
more important to history because of their innovations than the much 
richer Egyptians.

_Location_

Sumer was located in southern Mesopotamia where the Tigris and 
Euphrates Rivers come together before flowing into the Persian Gulf.  
By 5000 B.C. primitive farmers had come down to the valley from the 
Zafros Mountains to the east.  The land was rich but baked hard in the 
summer sun after the late spring river floods.  The early settlers 
learned how to control some of the flooding with dikes and how to 
irrigate their summer fields.  Early settlements at Ur, Uruk, and 
Eridu grew into independent cities first and then city- states.

_Capital_

As a conglomeration of city- states, there was no clear capital for 
the Sumerians because the center of power shifted from time to time.  
The cities of Ur, Lagash, Erech, Eridu, and Uruk were the most 
important.

_Rise to Power_

From 5000 to 3000 B.C.. agricultural communities of Sumer gradually 
coalesced into city- states along the banks of the Tigris and 
Euphrates Rivers.  The peak of this city- state culture lasted from 
2900 to 2400 B.C.  They warred with one another from time to time and 
competed for land and trade, but never conglomerated or built an 
empire that expanded from their traditional homeland.

The city- states of the river valley were relatively rich from food 
production, manufacturing, and their position along important trade 
routes.  This made them tempting targets when more powerful and 
warlike neighbors came into existence to the north and east.

_Economy_

The Sumerians grew wheat, barley, peas, onions, turnips, and dates.  
They raised cattle and sheep, fished, and hunted wildfowl along the 
river.  Food was generally abundant and populations grew accordingly.

There was no copper in the river valleys, but copper was found in the 
mountains to the east and north.  The Sumerians learned how to obtain 
copper from ore by 4000 B.C. and to make bronze by 3500 B.C.

They traded food, cloth, and manufactured items for raw materials, 
such as timber, copper, and stone, which they fashioned into items of 
everydat use, weapons, and more valuable trade goods.  Their merchants 
traveled up the Tigris and Euphrates to trade with the people of 
Anatolia and the Mediterranean coast.  They also traded in the Persian 
Gulf for items from India and further east.

_Religion and Culture_

The Sumerians worshipped hundreds of gods, with each city having its 
own patron deity.  The principal gods, such as Entil, the god of air, 
were too busy to bother with the plight of individuals.  For that 
reason, each Sumerian worshipped a particular minor god or goddess who 
was expected to interact with the major gods.

The Sumerians did not believe in an afterlife and were realistic about 
the limits of human goodness.  They accepted that although the gods 
were above question, they were not always kind.

The soul and center of each city- state was its temple to the patron 
god.  The Sumerians believed that the god owned the city- state.  Part 
of the land was farmed directly for the god, often by slaves.  The 
remaining land was farmed by the temple staff or by farmers who paid 
rent to the temple.  Rents and offerings paid for temple operation and 
supported the poor.

Slaves were an important part of the community and were one objective 
of any military campaign.  Even locals could become slaves to satisfy 
debts.  Slaves were allowed to work extra hours for themselves and use 
any savings to buy their freedom.

_Government_

Each city in Sumer was ruled at first by a council of elders, although 
a war leader, called a lugal, was selected to lead the army during 
conflict.  Eventually the lugals assumed power as kings and 
established dynasties.

Evidence suggests that the Sumerians may have taken the first steps 
toward democracy by electing a representative assembly.  They 
consisted of two houses- a senate of important citizens and a lower 
house made up of those available for military duty.  

Preserved clay tablets reveal that the Sumerians maintained courts of 
justice where people could expect a fair trial.  One table recorded 
the oldest murder trial in history.

Most of the food production and distribution was controlled through 
the temple.  A noble class arose based on land ownership, control of 
land, and manufacturing.  Most trade and manufacturing was outside the 
temple's control.

_Architecture_

The Sumerians were handicapped by having no easy access to stone or 
wood for building.  Sun- dried mud bricks were their main building 
material and this required some ingenuity.  They were the first to 
employ the arch, vault, and dome.  Their cities were completely 
enclosed by brick walls.  Their most important buildings were temples, 
built as large mounds called ziggurats.  Through cycles of attack, 
destruction, and restoration, the temples were rebuilt again and again 
at the same site, gradually getting larger with each reincarnation.  
Mud bricks eroded and crumbled much more quicker than stone, however, 
and little Sumerian architecture survives.

_Military_

The key influence on the Sumerian military was their poor strategic 
position.  Natural obstacles for defense existed only on their borders 
to the west (desert) and south (Persian Gulf).  When more populous and 
powerful enemies appeared to their north and east, the Sumerians were 
susceptible to attack.

Surviving artwork and archaelogical remains indicate that the Sumerian 
soldiers used spears and short swords of bronze.  They wore bronze 
helmets and carried large shields.  Their armies were not particularly 
noted but records are sparse.

They engaged in siege warfare during their many inter- city wars.  Mud 
brick walls did not stand against determined attackers who had the 
time to pry out the bricks or pound them to dust.

The Sumerians invented chariots and were the first to use them in 
battle.  These earlt chariots were four- wheeled and pulled by wild 
asses, and were not effective in battle as the later two- wheeled 
design pulled by horses.  Sumerian chariots may have served primarily 
as fast transports, but surviving artwork suggests that spears or 
javelins were thrown from them.

_Decline and Fall_

A group of Semitic people called the Akkadians settled north of Sumer 
along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.  The Akkadians adopted very 
quickly the culture, religion, and writing of the more advanced 
Sumerians who had preceeded them.  In 2371 B.C., Sargon I seized the 
throne of Kish and gradually conquered all of the city- states of 
Akkadia.  He turned south and conquered the city- states of Sumer, 
which were unable to unite in defense.  Sargon established the first 
empire of history during the reign from 2371 to 2316 B.C., extending 
his control along the Fertile Crescent from Elam, to the east of 
Sumer, to the Mediterranean coast.

Sargon's empire collapsed after his death but was restored briefly by 
his grandson.  Around 2230 B.C. the Akkadian empire was destroyed by 
an invasion of Gutians, the barbarian hill people from the Zagros 
Mountains.  New cities and towns soon grew up along the river valleys, 
but the Sumerians were gone as a distinct and indepentent culture.

_Legacy_

The Sumerians are most noted for the invention of the wheel and 
writing.  The wheel was important for transport and for pottery 
making.  Sumerian writing, cuneiform, consisted of groups of stylus 
wedge impressions pushed into clay to form stylized pictograms 
representing words.  This writing grew out of record keeping and seals 
from business transactions.

They were among the first to use boats, including round boats made of 
hide stretched over a wooden framework.  These coracles were 
especially popular among the reeds and waterways of the river delta.


=====================================
XIX. Yamato
=====================================

(300 to 800 A.D.)

The Yamato period of Japanese culture is also called the age of the 
great tombs because of the appearance in these centuries of great 
tombs and tomb clusters, presumably for the burial of rulers and other 
elites.  The name Yamato comes ffrom the region of Japan that was the 
home of the first clan to consolidate rule over most of the islands.  
During the Yamato period, Japan accelerated its advance in technology 
by adopting the cultivation of rice, improving its pottery, developing 
iron working, building social hierarchies, and accomplishing a 
political, economic, anc cultural consolidation of the islands.

_Location_

The hereditary lands of the Yamato clan are on a peninsula on the 
southwest coast of Ise Bay.  This bay is located on the main island of 
Honshu, southwest of modern Tokyo.

_Capital_

Prior to the late seventh century A.D., there was no permanent capital 
of Japan.  Each king ruled from his own palace, which was usually 
abandoned following his death.  As the Yamato began to adopt the 
Chinese system of governemntal bureaucracy and organization, the need 
for a permanent seat of government arose.  The first capital was 
founded at Fujiwara in 694 A.D. and served three emperors before being 
abandoned in 710.  The second capital of this period was built at 
Heijo and occupied from 710 to 784.

_Rise To Power_

Chinese documents from the second century A.D. make reference to 100 
countries existing in Wa, a.k.a. Japan.  By the third century, the 
Chinese refer to a queen of Wa, probably of the Yamato clan, who had 
consolidated 30 countries under her rule.  During this period, the 
Yamato clan consolidated its control over most of Japan with a 
combination of military conquest, intermarriage, and diplomacy.

_Economy_

Under the Yamato, the Japanese economy remained dependent on rice 
growing.  It was primarily a barter economy and taxes were paid in 
rice, cloth, and other commodities by reasants who worked public 
lands.  Beginning with the seventh century, coins were imported from 
China to facilitate tax collection.  An attempt was made to mint 
Japanese coins, but rulers could not resist the temptation to debase 
the local coinage and it fell out of use.

_Religion and Culture_

New concepts were added to the ancient Japanese beliefs and rituals 
during the Yamato period, including respect for clan ancestors and a 
mythology of divine ancestry for the Yamato dynasty.  Under the 
influence of Chinese BUddhism propaganded by Forea during the sixth 
century, the Japanese religion became more formalized as Shinto, the 
Way of the Kami.  The kami were an infinite number of natural spirits 
and powers that could be called upon for aid or appeased when angered.  
The hierarchy of Shinto divinities was defined and the mythology was 
written down.  The rulers of Japan descended from the sun goddess, the 
supreme Shinto deity.

Early Shinto was positive and concerned with the present, not the past 
or an afterlife.  It fostered a reverence for a natural universe that 
was seen as good and ethical.  Evil was identified with impurity and 
the unnatural.  Sincere honesty was the central virtue.

_Government_

During the Yamato period, tribal states of various sizes and power 
were brought together gradually by a dynasty of Yamato clan rulers.  
The leader of the Yamato in the second half of this period was known 
as the Daio, or Great King.  The power of the Yamato was expanded and 
strengthened through blood ties within the clan, their apparent 
military supremacy, diplomacy, and manipulation of the sun myth that 
bestowed divinity on their ancestry.

The different tribal groups or clans were the nobility or uji class.  
Serving the uji was an occupational/ professional class called the be, 
who worked as farmers, scribes, traders, and manufacturers.  The 
lowest class were slaves.  Immigrants fit in among the uji and be, 
depending on their skills and wealth.

In the seventh century, the Yamato transformed the government of Japan 
based on influences from China.  The Yamato sovereign became an 
imperial ruler supported by court and administrative officials.  The 
uji class was stripped of land and military power, but given official 
posts and stripends.  This political system remained in effect until 
around 1200 A.D.

_Architecture_

The outstanding architectural achievements of the Yamato are their 
tombs.  These are mounds of earth in the shape of a keyhole if viewed 
from above.  The largest tombs are found in the Yamato region of 
Japan, and is further evidence of power emanating from that locale.  
The Nintoku tomb on the Osaka Plain rivals the Pyramids in size.  The 
central tomb is 500 meters long and 35 meters high.  It is surrounded 
by three moats with intervening belts of trees and covers 32 hectars 
(approximately 3.4 million square feet).  Stone burial chambers were 
evacuated in the earth below the central tomb mound.

Tombs thought related to the imperial family are now controlled by a 
government agency.  Although some have been pillaged in the past, many 
remain unexcavated.

_Military_

Based on the large numbers of warrior figures, weapons, and pieces of 
armor found in burial tombs from this era, warfare was apparently a 
common feature of Yamato culture.  Despite the existence of a dominant 
ruler, clan groups found reason for conflict.  All adult men were 
available for military service and were required to serve for at least 
one year.  The uji class provided the elite troops and officers for 
armies.

Warrior figures from tombs are shown wearing full body armor and 
visored helmets.  The most commonly found weapons are swords, spears, 
and bow quivers.  Horse figures are also found in abundance, 
suggesting the existence of cavalry.  The sudden appearance of horses 
in burial goods around the fifth century has led to the hypothesis 
that Japan was invaded by a cavalry army at that time.  It is more 
probable that the horse was an import that became a status symbol for 
the elite who were most likely to receive a ceremonial burial.  The 
elite uji class made up the cavalry of the period because they could 
afford the horse and equipment.

_Legacy_

The Yamato period is remembered for the sun goddess mythology from 
which all later emperors of Japan claimed divine ancestry.  The Yamato 
period also formalized the Shinto religion that would compete with 
imported Buddhism to the present day.  Most modern Japanese consider 
themselves descentants of the Yamato.  The great tombs spread about 
the countryside are the most material legacy.



=====================================
XX. The Buildings
=====================================

ACADEMY

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and 
Stable.
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 350 
Note: The Academy lets you train elite infantry units, including the 
Hoplite, Phalanx, and Centurion.  Researching Architecture increases 
the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  
The academy was the Greek equivalent of a school.  Students, usually 
only free men and favored slaves, received an education at the 
academy.  Subjects of study included the typical fare of schools but 
also politics, athletics, and military training.  The most rigorous of 
the Greek academies were those of Sparta, where boys were taken from 
their parents at an early age and educated in a military environment.  
The academy prepared the individual for service to the state as a 
citizen and as a soldier in the phalanx.  In one of the remarkable 
encounters of history, the future Alexander the Great was educated at 
the Academy of Aristotle.

ARCHERY RANGE

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks.
Cost: 100 Wood
Hit Points: 350 
Note: The Archery Range lets you train archers, including the Bowman, 
Improved Bowman, Composite Bowman, Chariot Archer, Elephant Archer, 
Horse Archer, and Heavy Horse Archer.  You must build the Archery 
Range before you can build the Siege Workshop.  Researching 
Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction 
time of this building.  The bow was developed as a hunting weapon long 
before the first towns appeared and was easily adapted to warfare.  
Because the bow allowed fighting from a distance and from behind 
cover, archers did not have to fight face- to- face with their enemy.  
As the first civilizations grew in size and their armies grew 
correspondingly, formal training of archers was instituted.  As part 
of this training, bowmen practiced shooting on archery ranges to 
improve accuracy.

BALLISTA TOWER

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, 
researched the 
               Watch Tower, upgraded to the Sentry Tower, upgraded to 
the 
               Guard Tower, researched Ballistics, and upgraded to the 
               Ballista Tower.
Upgrade Cost: 1800 Food, 750 Stone
Cost: 150 Stone
Hit Points: 200
Attack: 20
Armor: -
Range: 7
Special: Fire Rate once every 3 seconds
Upgrade of: Guard Tower
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The Ballista Tower is the ultimate tower.  It has more attack 
strength than the Guard Tower.  You must research Ballistics before 
you upgrade to the Ballista Tower.  Towers are defensive structures 
that fire missiles at enemy villagers and military units within range.  
Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the 
construction time of this tower.  Alchemy increases attack strength.  
Ballistics increases accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and 
Craftsmanship increase range.  The tower discovered on the wall at the 
ancient site of Jericho served several purposes.  It extended the 
visual range of lookouts that would be watching for the approach of 
raiders and other visitors.  An early warning might have been the 
difference between a successful defense and the fall of the town.  The 
tower was a superior firing position for archery.  Bowmen shooting 
down had an advantage in range and penetration power of arrows versus 
enemies shooting up.  Enemies hiding at the bottom of the wall may 
have remained visible to archers in the tower.  The tower itself was 
an independent bastion that could serve as a defensive position of 
last resort if the wall was carried.  The Ballista Tower was the 
ultimate defensive fortification of the ancient era.  It could 
withstand a lajor attack and was equipped and designed to take a heavy 
toll on attackers.

BARRACKS

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
Cost: 125 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Barracks lets you train infantry, including the Clubman, 
Axeman, Short Swordsman, Long Swordsman, and Legion.  You must have 
built the Barracks before you can build the Archery Range, Siege 
Workshop, Stable, or Academy.  Researching Architecture increases the 
hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  When 
the first armies came into being, places were needed eventually to 
make weapons, store weapons, drill troops, and house troops.  The 
Barracks in Age of Empires represents these places.

DOCK

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
Cost: 100 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Dock lets you create boats, including the Fishing Boat, 
Fishing Ship, Trade Boat, Merchant Ship, Light Transport, Heavy 
Transport, Scout Ship, War Galley, Trireme, Catapult Trireme, and 
Juggernaught.  The Dock is also where fishing vessels deposit food and 
trade vessels deposit gold from trading.  Researching Architecture 
increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this 
building.  The earliest boats were simply tied up to rocks or trees on 
shore to take on or drop off cargo or were physically pulled onto the 
beach.  Later, wooden structures were built out into the water to 
facilitate loading and unloading.  Docks were also safer for ships 
because ships could avoid being beached, which strained the hulls and 
increased leaking.  When the dock was extended beyond the shallows, 
even larger ships could be tied up, farther improving efficiencies.

FARM

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market.
Cost: 75 Wood
Hit Points: 50
Note: The Farm provides a reliable supply of food, which can be 
gathered by a villager.  Because Farms produce food at a fixed rate, 
assigning more than one villager to work on a Farm does not increase 
its productivity.  Farms eventually go fallow, in which case you can 
build another one.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points 
and decreases the construction time of this building.  Domestication, 
the Plow, and Irrigation increase Farm production.  The humble farm 
was the foundation of the great civilizations of antiquity and most 
human societies since.  The farm was the technological advance that 
provided the large and dependable supplies of food necessary for 
civilization to arise.  Farming began when edible seeds and fruits 
were preserved from one growing season and systematically planted in 
prepared ground the following season.  The plants that resulted were 
nurtured and protected until the edible produce was suitable for 
harvest.  Important farming advancements in ancient times included 
irrigation of rich but arid land, the plow that opened the soil for 
receiving seeds, and the continual selection of seeds from the most 
succesful plants that gradually improved food plant yields.

FORTIFICATION

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must heave built the Town Center, Granary, 
researched the 
               Small Wall, upgraded to the Medium Wall, and upgraded 
to the
               Fortification.
Upgrade Cost: 300 Food, 175 Stone
Cost: 5 Stone
Hit Points: 400 
Upgrade of: Medium Wall
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The Fortification is the ultimate wall. It has more hit points 
than the Medium Wall.  Walls are defensive structures that can be 
built around your empire or important areas.  Villagers and military 
units cannot move through standing walls, however, they can attack the 
walls.  Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, Ballistas, and the 
Helepolis are particularly effective for destroying walls.  
Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the 
construction time of this wall.  The great civilizations of ancient 
times built ever- larger fortifications to protect their important 
cities and frontiers. Herodotus reported that the walls of Babylon 
were sufficiently thick that a chariot could be driven on them around 
the city.  Archaelogy indicates that large walls were not 
invulnerable- every great ancient city appears to have been stormed 
eventually- but only a large and well- equipped army could surmount 
them.

GOVERNMENT CENTER

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market.
Cost: 175 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Government Center lets you build additional Town Centers, 
and research technologies that improve your buildings and military 
units, including Writing, Architecture, Engineering, Aristocracy, 
Alchemy, Nobility, and Ballistics.  Researching Architecture increses 
the hit points and decreases the construction time of this building.  
The government center was the administrative center of the town, 
village, city, kingdom, or empire.  It was often the palace of the 
strongman or king.  It was here that justice was dispersed, records 
kept, taxes collected and stored, diplomacy conducted, and plans made.  
The development of the government center spurred technology such as 
architecture through the commission of public works and writing for 
the keeping of records.  The expansion of kingdoms led to a hierarchy 
of elites, often a nobility, that were needed as middle managers when 
the expanse of lands exceeded the ruler's ability to control directly.  
The provinces of the Persian Empire, for example, were ruled like 
independent stores by satraps who owed tribute and allegiance to the 
king in Susa.

GRANARY

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Granary lets you build walls and towers, including the Small 
Wall, Medium Wall, Fortification, Watch Tower, Sentry Tower, Guard 
Tower, and Ballista Tower.  You must research the Granary before you 
can built the Market.  Foragers and farmers can deposit food from 
Farms and forage sites at the Granary instead of the Town Center.  
Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the 
construction time of this building.  Following the advance of farming, 
humans faced the first time the happy problem of how to safely store 
large quantities of food grains.  The Granary made it possible to 
preserve growing season surpluses for consumption during winter 
months.  The Granary was a central location where grain could be 
warehoused, guarded, and distributed fairly as needed.  The need to 
protect food supplies was an early reason for building walls and 
fortifications.  Without protection, the surpluses in the Granary were 
easily taken by raiders from nearby hunting and gathering groups.

GUARD TOWER

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and the Granary, 
and 
               researched Watch Tower, upgraded to Sentry Tower, and 
upgraded 
               to Guard Tower.
Upgrade cost: 300 Food, 100 Stone
Cost: 150 Stone
Hit Points: 200
Attack: 6
Armor: -
Range: 7
Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
Upgrade of: Sentry Tower
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The Guard Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range 
than the Sentry Tower.  The Guard Tower can be upgraded to the 
Ballista Tower.  Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at 
enemy villagers and military units within range.  Researching 
Architecture increases the construction time of this tower.  Alchemy 
increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases accuracy.  
Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship, increase range.  The 
tower discovered on the wall at the ancient site of Jericho served 
several purposes.  It extended the visual range of lookouts that would 
be watching for the approach of raiders and other visitors.  An early 
warning might have been the difference between a successful defense 
and the fall of the town.  The tower was a superior firing position 
for archery.  Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in range and 
penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up.  Enemies 
hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers 
in the tower.  The tower itself was an independent bastion that could 
serve as the defensive position of last resort if the wall was 
carried.  The Guard Tower was a superior fortification, well- designed 
for holding out against attack and for bringing weapons to bear on an 
attacker.

HOUSE

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center.
Cost: 30 Wood
Hit points: 75
Note: A House supports up to four villagers, military units, or boats.  
You must have enough houses before you can create new units.  If a 
House is destroyed, you do not lose the units it supported, but you 
must build new houses before you can build new villagers, military 
units, or boats.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points 
and decreases the construction time of this building.  Shelter 
increased in importance when humans expanded their range farther away 
from the equator in the wake of the receding ice sheets and into 
climates of wide seasonal variation.  Growing hman populations quickly 
occupied the few natural shelters available in these areas.  The 
provision of man- made shelter made existence in challenging and 
variable climates possible.  Without houses, year- round populations 
could not have increased beyond minimums.

MARKET

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Granary.
Cost: 150 Wood
Hit points: 350
Note: The Market lets you build Farms, pay Tribute to other 
civilizations, and research technologies that improve your military 
units and the effectiveness of your villagers, including Woodworking, 
Artisanship, Craftsmanship, Stone Mining, Siegecraft, Gold mining, 
Coinage, Domestication, the Plow, Irrigation, and the Wheel.  You must 
build the Market before you can build the Government Center or Temple.  
Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the 
construction time of this building.  The specialization made possible 
by the development of agriculture created the need for a place where 
craftsmen could meet to barter their wares for those of others and for 
food.  The Market in each town and village was the place where barter 
and exchange took place.  The development of the Market marked the 
change from the small hunting/ foraging group that shared its harvest 
to the much more complex economy that rose with the rise of towns and 
cities.  Specialization resulted in efficiencies of scale and greater 
overall production fairly among the food providers and specialists.  
The profit motive spurred innovation to increase production.  The 
potter, for example, looked for ways to make more and better pots for 
the same effort to increase the amount of food that he could obtain by 
trading pots.

MEDIUM WALL

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, 
researched Small 
               Wall, and upgraded to Medium Wall.
Upgrade Cost: 180 Food, 100 Stone
Cost: 5 Stone
Hit points: 300
Upgrade of: Small Wall
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The Medium Wall has more hit points than the Small Wall.  The 
Medium Wall can be upgraded to the Fortification.  Walls are defensive 
structures that can be built around your empire or important areas.  
Villagers and military units cannot move through standing walls; 
however, they can attack the walls.  Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy 
Catapults, Ballistas, and the Helepolis are particularly effective for 
destroying walls.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points 
and decreases the construction time of this wall.  One of the earliest 
human setlements yet discovered is the city of Jericho near the Jordan 
River in modern Isreal.  This site from 7000 B.C. is remarkable for 
possessing a stone masonry wall, dry moat around the wall, and a 
tower.  At an astonishingly early date, Jericho demonstrated that the 
ancients understood principles of fortification that would carry 
forward essentially unchanged until the development of gunpowder.  The 
Medium Wall is a defensive structure built of stone or other 
substantial construction to withstand a protracted attack.

SENTRY TOWER

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, 
researched Watch 
               Tower, and upgraded to Sentry Tower.
Upgrade cost: 120 Food, 50 Stone
Cost: 150 Stone
Hit points: 150
Attack: 4
Armor: -
Range: 6
Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
Upgrade of: Watch Tower
Upgrade at: Granary
Note: The SEntry Tower has more hit points, attack strength, and range 
than the Watch Tower.  The Sentry Tower can be upgraded to the Guard 
Tower.  Towers are defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy 
villagers and military units within range.  Researching Architecture 
increases the hit points and decreases the construction time of this 
tower.  Alchemy increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases 
accuracy.  Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.  
The tower discovered on the wall at the ancient site of Jericho served 
several purposes.  It extended the visual range of lookouts that would 
be watching for the approach of raiders and other visitors.  An early 
warning might have been the difference between a successful defense 
and the fall of the town.  The tower was a superior firing position 
for archery.  Bowmen shooting down had an advantage in range and 
penetration power of arrows versus enemies shooting up.  Enemies 
hiding at the bottom of the wall may have remained visible to archers 
in the tower.  The tower itself was an independent bastion that could 
serve as the defensive position of last resort if the wall was 
carried.  The Sentry Tower was an improved fortification of strong 
materials and designed for defense.

SIEGE WORKSHOP

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Barracks, and 
Archery 
               Range.
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Siege Workshop lets you build siege weapons, including the 
Stone Thrower, Catapult, Heavy Catapult, Ballista, and Helepolis.  
Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the 
construction time of this building.  The earliest fortifications yet 
discovered date from 7000 B.C., but evidence of siege weapons doesn't 
appear until much later.  We can assume, however, that siege equipment 
was in use long before the first evidence that has survived.  Evidence 
of a scaling ladder does not appear until about 2500 B.C.  The 
earliest record of a simple battering ram comes from 1900 B.C.  Amore 
powerful ram plus the undermining of walls appears by 880 B.C.  The 
mobile siege tower first appears one hundred years later.  The 
catapult was invented by Greeks in 397 B.C.  There were no further 
significant advances in siege engines until the advent of gunpowder.  
Siege weapons were researched and built in siege workshops.

SMALL WALL

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
researched 
               Small Wall.
Research cost: 50 Food
Cost: 5 Stone
Hit points: 200
Research at: Granary
Note: The Small Wall is the wealest of the walls.  Upgrades include 
the Medium Wall and Fortification.  Walls are defensive structures 
that can be built around your empire or important areas.  Villagers 
and military units cannot move through standing walls; however, they 
can attack the walls.  Stone Throwers, Catapults, Heavy Catapults, 
Ballistas, and the Helepolis are particularly effective for destroying 
walls.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points and 
decreases the construction time of this wall.  

STABLE

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center and Barracks.
Cost: 150 Wood
Hit points: 350
Note: The Stable lets you train cavalry units, including the Scout, 
Cavalry, Heavy Cavalry, Cataphract, Chariot, and War Elephant.  You 
must build the Stable before you can build the Academy.  Researchinf 
Architecture increases hit points and decreases the construction time 
of this building.  The horses that survived the last Ice Age were 
relatively small animals unsuited for riding or pulling.  They were 
hunted out of existence in the Americas and domesticated first for 
food on the steppes of Asia.  Over many generations of selective 
breeding, they grew large enough to be of use other than as food.  One 
issue that had to be resolved was how to harness them without causing 
choking.  Humans eventually learned to ride, first from the rear, non- 
control position over the hips, and then from the forward position 
that we are familiar with today.  The first evidence of horses being 
ridden appears in the second millenium B.C., although it is generally 
accepted that they were ridden earlier in Asia.  The Stable represents 
the application of animals, primarily the horse, to warfare, first 
pulling chariots and then carrying warriors.  Detailed records survive 
from Assyria and elsewhere related to the acquisition, training, 
equipping, and employment of horses in battle.

STORAGE PIT

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center
Cost: 120 Wood
Hit points: 350
Note: The Storage Pit lets you research technologies that improve the 
armor and attack strength of military units, including Toolworking, 
Metalworking, Metallurgy, the Bronze Shield, the Iron Shield, Leather 
Armor for Infantry, Scale Armor for Infantry, Chain Mail for Infantry, 
Leather Armor for Cavalry, Scale Armor for Cavalry, Chain Mail for 
Cavalry, Leather Armor for Archery, Scale Armor for Archery, and Chain 
Mail for Archery.  Hunters, fishermen, and miners can deposit meat, 
fish, stone, wood, and gold at the Storage Pit instead at the Town 
Center.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points and 
dcreases the construction time of this building.  The storage pit was 
the functional equivalent of the granary, but for meat instead of 
grain.  Storing meat presented special problems because it spoiled so 
quickly and easily.  Meat was generally stored by drying or salting.  
The Storage Pit also represents the tool- and weapon- making skill of 
hunting societies, leading eventually to metalworking, making war, and 
armor making.  In this capacity it also serves as a storehouse and 
collection point for the raw materials of tool and weapon making: 
wood, stone, and gold (representing all metals).

TEMPLE

Age: Bronze
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
Market.
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 350
Note: The Temple lets you train Priests and research technologies that 
increase their powers, including Polytheism, Mysticism, Astrology, 
Monotheism, Afterlife, Jihad, and Fanaticism.  Researching 
Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the construction 
time of this building.  The temple was a religious center.  It was 
often the earthly home or point of communication with a particular god 
or goddess.  Priests or priestesses in the temple acted as the 
servants of the resident god or goddess and managed contact to and 
from the people, plus instruction, rituals, petitions, and answers to 
questions.  The most common form of petition was the prayer.  Another 
was the provision of gifts that supported the temple and its servants.  
A less common petition was the sacrifice of animals or even humans.  
The general belief of the time  was that the more elaborate a temple, 
the taller it was, and the more grand, the more disposed the god or 
goddess would be to provide good weather, rainfall, and crop yields, 
while keeping away pests, disease, and human invaders.

TOWN CENTER

Age: Stone
Prerequisites: You must already have a Town Center, and you must have 
built 
               the Granary, Market, and Government Center.
Cost: 200 Wood
Hit Points: 600
Note:  The Town Center lets you create villagers and advance to the 
next Age.  It is also where villagers can deposit food, wood, gold, 
and stone.  The Town Center supports four villagers, military units, 
or boats.  Priests cannot convert Town Centers.  After you build a 
Government Center, you can build additional Town Centers to expand 
your civilization's dominance and build Town Centers closer to distant 
resources.  You can also replace your Town Center if it is destroyed 
in combat.  Researching Architecture increases the hit points and 
decreases the construction time of this building.  Allvillages and 
towns had an administrative center that was the site of governmental 
power and leadership.  In the earliest villages this might have been 
the leader's home.  Later it might have been the king's palace.  The 
center was often the place where important supplies, especially food 
surpluses, were stored.  Vessels for storing grain and oil were found 
in the ruins of the Palace at Knossos of Crete.  Some of the earliest 
accounting records yet found were clay tablets left in long- forgotten 
storerooms in ancient Sumeria and in Hittite cities.  The destruction 
of the town center usually meant the destruction of the town's 
governmental infrastructure.

WATCH TOWER

Age: Tool
Prerequisites: You must have built the Town Center, Granary, and 
researched
               Watch Tower.
Research Cost: 50 Food
Cost: 150 Stone
Hit points: 100
Attack: 3
Armor: -
Range: 5
Special: Fire rate once / 1.5 seconds
Research at: Granary
Note: The Watch Tower is the weakest of the towers.  Upgrades include 
the Sentry Tower, Guard Tower, and Ballista Tower.  Towers are 
defensive structures that fire missiles at enemy villagers and 
military units within range.  Researching Architecture increases hit 
points and decreases the construction time of this tower.  Alchemy 
increases attack strength.  Ballistics increases accuracy.  
Woodworking, Artisanship, and Craftsmanship increase range.  The Watch 
Tower was a simple tower, easily built, and intended mainly to give 
early warning.

WONDER

Age: Iron
Prerequisites: Advance to the Iron Age
Cost: 1000 Wood, 1000 Stone, 1000 Gold
Hit points: 500
Note: Building a Wonder can be a victory condition that wins the game 
or it can provide score points.  You can build more than one Wonder.  
Researching Architecture increases the hit points and decreases the 
construction time of this building.  A Wonder is a massive structure, 
a crowning achievement of technology, resources, and construction time 
for civilizations that build one.  Examples of historic ancient 
wonders are the Egyptian Pyramide, the Great Wall of China, and the 
Athenian Acropolis.  You must advance to the Iron Age before you can 
build a Wonder.  Priests cannot convert a Wonder.

=====================================
XXI. The Units
=====================================

Under Construction

=====================================
XXII. Extra Stuff
=====================================

_Cheats_

To enter the following cheats, you must press [Enter] anytime during 
gameplay.  Next, type the letters to the left, and press [Enter].

BIG BERTHA- Turns Heavy Catapults into Big Berthas

BIGDADDY- A black sports car with a rocket launcher

BLACK RIDER- Turns Horse Archers into Black Riders

COINAGE- 1000 gold bonus

DARK RAIN- Turns a Bowman into a Composite Bowman which turns into a 
tree when not moving

DIEDIEDIE- All enemy units die

E=MC2 TROOPER- Creates a guy in a white suit with a slow- firing nuke 
gun

HARI KARI- You lose the game

HOMERUN- You win the game

HOYOHOYO- Priests are faster and stronger

ICBM- Your Ballistas and Helepolis have a 99+1 range, if I remember 
correctly

JACK BE NIMBLE- Your catapults and stone throwers fire villagers, 
cows, etc.

KILLX- Kill player X

NO FOG- Removes the fog of war

PEPPERONI PIZZA- 1000 food bonus

PHOTON MAN- Create a guy in a white suit with a quick- fire laser gun

QUARRY- 1000 stone bonus

RESIGN- You resign

REVEAL MAP- Reveals the map

STEROIDS- Buildings and units are created instantly

WOODSTOCK- 1000 wood bonus


=====================================
XXIII. Credits
=====================================

- Microsoft
- Ensemble
- GameFaqs and CJayC
- Scott Ong

=====================================
XXIV. Farewell!
=====================================

I hope you enjoyed the guide.  If not, I got two words for 'ya, S*CK 
IT!!  This guide is Copyright 1999 Jim Chamberlin.  You can't 
copyright facts, only style. If you would like me to include something 
else in the guide, then e- mail me at the address at the beginning of 
the guide.  Make sure you just didn't overlook it and missed it.  Also 
there will also be a file for each of the groups, which will have 
information about which technologies they have and which ones they 
lack.  Until Next Time...