Falcon 3.0 (The Electronic Battlefield Series FAQ) (e)

Andere Lösungen
The Electronic Battlefield Series FAQ

by Kris Ong
or Kris Ong at the Trade Center BBS

available for anonymous ftp at /users/krismon
or via www/Mosaic at

1.0 The Falcon 3.0 Mailing List
  3.1.1 FALCONER
  3.1.2 F3MAPS
  3.1.3 FALCCALC
  3.1.4 F3PAD
  3.1.5 FCE - Falcon Campaign Editor
  3.2.2 Ken ‘Stinger’ Richarson’s SIMPAK Utilities
  3.2.3 TM-STICK
 4.3 TRADE CENTER BBS and other SIMNET nodes

1.0 The Falcon 3.0 Mailing List

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Last updated:  09 April 1994

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Jeff Beadles
Keeper of the Falcon 3 mailing lists


The release of Falcon 3.0 in December, 1991 was accompanied by
many bugs that Spectrum HoloByte has addressed in a series of
software bugfix patches. The patches to the original Falcon 3.0
program were released as versions A, C, and D.

Spectrum HoloByte has also released an add-on campaign disk for
use with Falcon 3.0 called Operation Fighting Tiger. Falcon 3.0
modified by the addition of OFT is referred to as Falcon 3.01. A
bugfix patch to Falcon 3.01 has been released as version 3.01.1.

In July, 1993, SH released a second add-on product for Falcon 3.0
called  MiG-29, Deadly Adversary of Falcon 3.0. To maintain
compatibility between the various versions of Falcon 3.0, OFT,
and MiG-29, SH released a patch called version 3.02 which
upgrades any version of Falcon 3.0 or OFT to a common standard.

Soon afterwards, SH released the patch for MiG-29 and Falcon, to
upgrade to 1.01 and 3.02.1 receptively.
Around this time, the MiG-29 stand alone was released, which
fused the MiG-29 add-on with the scenarios of Falcon 3.0.

In December, 1993, SH released a third add-on product for Falcon
3.0 called Hornet: Naval Strike Fighter. To maintain
compatibility with the various versions, a patch was included for
updating Falcon 3.0 and MiG-29 to 3.03 and 1.02 respectively.

Soon afterwards, SH released the patch for Hornet, Mig-29 and
Falcon, to upgrade to 1.01, 1.03, and 3.04 respectively. These
are the latest versions as of this writing.

For Falcon 3.0 owners who did not decide to purchase the OFT
campaign disk, SH made an E patch available which included many
of the new features introduced in OFT. However, version 3.02 was
released almost immediately after version E. As a result, patch E
was never made widely available, and has in virtually all
respects been superseded by version 3.02. Current shipping
copies(new) of Falcon 3.0 contain version 3.0E. Its mention in
this FAQ is for the sake of completeness.

All patches are cumulative (for example, version D includes all
software changes from patches A and C, installation of OFT
includes all changes from version D, and installation of version
3.02 brings any previous version to a 3.02 standard). You can
tell which version you have by looking at the title screen, which
is the screen with the pilot looking over his shoulder at the F-
16. The version number appears on the bottom of the screen as,
for example, V3.0C. Additionally, starting in version 3.02, SH
includes a CHECKVER.COM file which, when run, displays which
versions reside in the directory.

Designation              Date & Comments
--------------------               ----------------------
3.0            12/91
3.0a                1/92 (bug-fix)
3.0c                3/92 (more bug-fixes)
3.0d                6/92 (still MORE bug-fixes)
3.0e           7/93 (equal bug fix status as 3.01.1)
3.01                7/92 (Operation Fighting Tiger)
3.01.1              9/92 (the bugs strike back, but are fixed)
3.02           7/93 (compatibility with MiG-29 1.0)
3.02.1              9/93 (minor bug-fixes to match MiG-29 1.01.1)
3.03           12/93 (compatibility with Hornet: Naval Strike
Fighter 1.0, MiG-29 1.02)
3.04           2/94 (son of more bug-fixes match with Hornet
1.01, MiG-29 1.03)
               Version 3.04 is the latest as of this writing.

MiG-29: Deadly Adversary of Falcon 3.0 (Falcon 3.0 add-on)
MiG-29 (stand-alone version)

Designation              Date & Comments
--------------------               ----------------------
1.00 Original release    7/93
1.01           9/93 (bug-fixes)
1.01.1              10/93 (compatibility with Falcon 3.02.1)
1.02           12/93 (compatibility with Hornet 1.0,Falcon 3.03)
1.03           2/94 (compatibility with Hornet 1.01, Falcon 3.04)

The original MiG-29 release required Falcon 3.0 (since it used
RTPatch to
patch the versions and add/modify the Falcon files).  The stand-
version was released around October 1993.


Designation              Date & Comments
--------------------               ----------------------
1.00                12/93 (original release)
1.01                2/94 (bugfixes and compatibility with MiG-29
1.03/ Falcon 3.04)

Latest copies of stand-alone Falcon made after 8/93 conform to
version 3.0e.

There was never a version 3.0b of Falcon, since pirated copies
infected with a virus
were being passed around as "Falcon 3.0b" Spectrum decided to
rename their
next patch after 3.0a to 3.0c.

Whether you have Falcon 3.0, OFT, and/or MiG-29, and/or Hornet
make sure you have the latest patch version. In addition to
fixing bugs, the patches add game features omitted from previous
versions. These changes are documented in README files supplied
with the patch files. It's also desirable to run the most recent
version if you want to find other players for modem play, since
the game must be at the same version on both PC's for the
connection to succeed.

The process of upgrading to any version of the game causes all
squadrons you've formed and any tapes you've recorded with the
ACMI to be unusable with the new version. You may want to finish
any campaigns in progress beforehand.

Upgrade patches to Falcon 3.0D, 3.01.1, and 3.02 can be obtained
from Spectrum HoloByte, or downloaded via anonymous FTP from
ONION.RAIN.COM or its mirrored sites. Refer to section 4.0 of
this FAQ for instructions.


Operation Fighting Tiger is a commercially-available campaign
disk add-on product for Falcon 3.0. Installation of OFT will
upgrade Falcon 3.0 to version D standards, and include its own
enhancements, bringing it to version 3.01.

The improvements to Falcon 3.0 made available in OFT, such as new
wingman commands, improved TWI codes, landing aids, new radio
messages, etc., can be obtained by non-OFT Falcon 3.0 owners by
applying the version E or 3.02 patches.

Additions unique to the Falcon 3.01 OFT add-on disk include:
     - New campaign theaters: Pakistan, Korea, and the Kurile
     - New plane types: MiG-31 Foxhound, Jaguar, Mirage 2000, J-7
     Airguard, Q-5 Fantan, the hypothetical Russian UMF (unmanned
     fighter), F-5 Tiger, Mistubishi F1, and the FSX, an advanced
     version of the F-16.
     - New missions: Anti-ship, train-busting, and others

To fix bugs found in OFT, Spectrum HoloByte has released a patch
file called 3.01.1. Refer to section 4.0 for instructions on how
to obtain the patch file from SH or via anonymous FTP from
ONION.RAIN.COM or its mirrors.


Falcon 3.02 is a freely-available upgrade that includes all
changes found in patches A, C, D, and E, and is required for
compatibility with MiG-29 Fulcrum. Falcon 3.02 also includes the
following enhancements:

     - support for Thrustmaster FCS and CH Flightstick Pro to
     allow selection of views from their coolie hats
     - improved information in padlock view, plus addition of
     afterburner and airbrake indicators
     - improved ECM modeling
     - improved head-to-head modem communications
     - menu selections are saved
     - new blackout/redout modeling


Mig-29 Fulcrum is the second add-on disk to Falcon 3.0. There is
also a Stand-alone version of MiG-29, which is compatible with
OFT and Hornet. MiG-29 add-on version, currently at version 1.0,
includes the Falcon 3.02 upgrade on its distribution diskettes.

MiG-29 Fulcrum allows the Falcon 3.0 player to experience the
action from the standpoint of the opposition in Instant Action,
Red Flag, and Campaign play.

Highlights of Falcon 3.0 Adversary: MiG-29 Fulcrum is described
here, parts taken from a press release from former SH Product
manager Daron Stinnett:

* Head-to-head and multi-player comms.  Six players with any
combination of MiGs and F-16s can fly against each other in
either H2H or campaign mode.  For example, if the F-16s are given
a mission to destroy an enemy air strip, the MiG-29 group will be
given the mission to protect the air strip.  Each side can setup
their own tactics to accomplish the mission.

* NEW FLIGHT MODEL - We have redone our flight model from
scratch.  Everything including non-fly-by-wire characteristics,
spins, tail slides, separated control surfaces has been
implemented.  You will find that it takes a lot more finesse to
control this plane in a dogfight.  For instance, the MiG-29 has
amazing nose authority, which means that you when you are turning
circles in a dogfight, by cranking your stick back you should be
able to point your nose at your opponent, however your high AOA
will cause you to bleed speed at a rapid rate and you will be a
sitting duck if you don't get a kill.  In the hands of a good
pilot, the MiG-29 can out perform the F-16 but an inexperienced
pilot will get shot down every time.

* REALISTIC AVIONICS - We are pulling out the stops in this area.
I expect that the avionics will be more accurately portrayed in
the game than any where else including books and video.  We are
working with Soviet fighter pilots as well as the Department Of
Defense to make it as accurate as possible.  Some of the
features: IRST (including head mounted variant), Functional
gauges, realistic HUD, and systems failure.


There are several software utilities available for sale, as
freeware, or as shareware that extend the capabilities of Falcon
3.0. As new versions of Falcon 3.0 were introduced, the utilities
likewise had to be revised to accomodate changes made by SH to
the game files. With the introduction of Falcon 3.02 and MiG-29
Fulcrum, new versions of some of the formerly freeware or
shareware utilities became available only as commercial products.

The freeware and shareware versions, in many cases compatible
only with Falcon 3.0D or 3.01, are available for downloading from
NEON.RAIN.COM or its mirrors. See section 4.2 for information
about dowloading by anonymous FTP.



The freeware version of Falconer is a utility created by Rob
Heittman for use with Falcon 3.0 version D and Falcon 3.0: OFT.
It allows you to edit all pilot stats, replenish of weapons and
supplies in campaign play, and print out pilot and squadron
information. Available from NEON.RAIN.COM and mirrors as

3.1.2 F3MAPS

Shareware version 4.1 of Falcon Mapper for Falcon 3.01.1 is a
utility created by Greg Prete that allows you to set Red Flag or
Instant action to any campaign theater, permanently set default
scale to 1x magnification, declutter the HUD, and randomly
generate Red Flag missions. Available from NEON.RAIN.COM and
mirrors as F3MAPR.ZIP.


Shareware version 2.51 of FalCalc, The Falcon 3.01 Mission
Planning Assistant, was  written using the data given in the
various charts and pages of both Falcon manuals, the original and
OFT.  It gives you a lot of information to help you fly
successful missions and wage a successful campaign. With Version
2.51, FalcCalc has been expanded to include:

- A Set of Intelligence Dispatches, which offer both Strategic
and Tactical data about your campaign.
- FalcCalc will now automatically examine your campaign files and
warn you if you're getting dangerously low on specific stores.
- You can Change Waypoint Speeds from directly within FalcCalc.
- You have the ability to pick which Pilots' names appear on your
Knee Board Sheet.
- "Bingo Fields" will now print directly on the Knee Board Sheet.
- The interface has been standardized.

Version 2.51 of FalcCalc is available from NEON.RAIN.COM and its
mirrors as FLCLC251.ZIP.

3.1.4 F3PAD

Although Falcon 3.02 added indicators for afterburner and
airbrake in padlock view, for owners of Falcon 3.01 Ken
Richardson's TSR utility shows indicators in padlock and SCROLL-
FORWARD views for afterburner, brake, radar, and ECM. Available
from NEON.RAIN.COM and its mirrors as F3PAD.ZIP and F3PAD2.ZIP.

3.1.5 FCE - Falcon Campaign Editor

I quote the FCE.TXT file included with this FREEWARE utility
available from NEON.RAIN.COM and its mirrors.

Falcon Campaign Editor
Version 1.0
For Falcon 3.04 and MiG-29 1.03
Copyright 1 MAR 94 by Frank W. Racis

Falcon Campaign Editor (FCE) is a program which allows you to
change the characteristics of the pilots in your Falcon/MiG29
squadrons, as well as control the supply status of an ongoing

IMPORTANT ===> FCE modifies data files essential to the proper
operation of Falcon 3.  It is highly recommended that you make a
backup copy of your squadron files (SQUAD?.*) before running FCE.

FCE has been designed for use with Falcon 3.04 and/or MiG-29
1.03.  It may work with some earlier versions, but has only been
tested on 3.04/1.03.  Upgrades are free, and are usually worth

FCE is a dual mode DOS/Windows program.  It will sense which
environment you are using and run the appropriate version.  The
DOS version is very simple - it only allows for a few basic
commands which affect all the
pilots or supplies of your squadron.  The Windows version is very
nice, and allows editing of individual pilots and campaign data.

Legal stuff
This program is free, and you may distribute as many copies as
you wish, as long as FCE.EXE and FCE.TXT are distributed
together, without modifications.  It cannot be sold as commercial
software, but a small
charge for shareware distribution is acceptable.

You have been warned to back up your campaign files.  If FCE
kills your campaign data, it's your own fault.  No warranties are
expressed or implied.

Falcon and MiG-29 are products of Spectrum Holobyte.  FCE is not.
I am in no way related to Spectrum Holobyte, except that I
purchase their games.

Please send me a brief E-Mail with your name and any comments you
may have. I just want an idea of how many people are using this,
whether it's worth my while to develop another version, and what
to include in
future releases.  (Report printing is already slated for v1.1)

Donations are accepted, but not required.  If I get a total of
$50 (10 people at 5 bucks each) I will buy Hornet and add Hornet
support to the next version.

Send comments, etc. to:



Keyboard Commander Corps offers keyboard templates and utilities
for use with Falcon 3.01, 3.02, and MiG-29. Versions of some of
the formerly  freeware and shareware utilities for use with
Falcon 3.02 and MiG-29 are  available only from Keyboard
Commander Corps. This press release was circulated on USENET
earlier this summer:

7/20/93               FALCON & MIG COMMANDER UTILITIES

Keyboard Commander Corps is proud to announce exciting new
utilities for Falcon 3.0:Operation Fighting Tiger and MiG-
29:Deadly Adversary of Falcon 3.0.  FCU & MCU are feature-packed
upgrades to their shareware predecessors written by the
"Skunkworks" gang on CompuServe's Flight Simulator Forum.
KCC has formed an alliance with the authors to bring you these
new and improved versions at a low price, but at the same time
reward the authors their normal registration fees.  For one low
price you get:

FalcCalc 3.0:  The wildly popular and superb campaign
intelligence gathering tool.  Viewable/Printable theater map with
detailed info. on every site, ground forces and all flight paths.
Printable Fuel consumption, Waypoint timing, Strategic/Tactical
reports and mission "Kneeboard sheet", including
new viewable pilot's roster to select upcoming mission pilots.
Allows resetting of waypoint timing speeds from within FalcCalc
to coordinate actions between multiple flights.  FalcCalc even
tells you the conditions for victory or defeat, backs up squadron
files and more!  Author- Bill White

F3 Requisition 1.0:  All new  utility from the author of FalcCalc
that truly puts you in command of your Falcon 3.0 squadrons.
Allows player to customize pilot's roster including names,
callsigns, skill ratings and status. Replenishes all supplies
including F-16's and even allows player to change resupply date.
Sort and print both pilot's roster and Sierra Hotel List. Allows
customized naming of squadrons!  Author- Bill White

Falcon Mapper 5.0:  A stalwart of Falcon world, Falcon Mapper is
the famous Red Flag, Instant Action and HUD customizing utility
now in it's fifth and best version. Allows players to change
default theaters for both Red Flag and Instant Action, Customize
and "declutter" the HUD and change the default view scale.  Auto-
generates missions in any theater and even allows the player to
set the numerous variables used for auto-generation. Great new
graphical map shows entire Red Flag theater, flight paths, enemy
positions and
more!   Author- Greg Prete

ShowF3 2.0: One of the coolest utilities available, ShowF3 allows
viewing of screen-shots taken with Falcon 3.0's own secret,
proprietary screen-capture program.  (Yep, it's been on player's
hardrives all along!).  New features include easy-to-navigate
interface that makes viewing screen-shots a snap, a save option
that converts screen-shots from Falcon's proprietary format into
popular .PCX or .GIF formats and deletes original file at the
same time to reduce disk clutter.  Easy instructions on how to
use Falcon's screen-capture commands included (Tip: Take AVTR
film, then use "Z" in ACMI/VCR mode to get best results!)
Author- Steve Kramp

Bornstein's Combat Missions:  Action packed, gut-wrenching custom
Red Flag missions from the celebrated author of the popular book
"Falcon 3:The Official Combat Strategy Book", the only book
Spectrum HoloByte chooses to sell via their direct marketing
newsletter and 800#!  Includes all type Nellis: Red Flag missions
with complete descriptions.  Missions can be further customized
in Falcon's Red Flag area.  Author- Howard Bornstein

KCC Menu 1.0:  Fantastic menu shell that brings it all together.
Easy way to access Falcon and utilities from one central menu
that creates a seamless "suite". Player can use ready-to-go
default menu configuration or customize to his or her preference.
Can load .bat files as well as create sub-menus to add all of the
player's games and sims.  Allows viewing and printing of
accompanying utility manuals.  Completely unloads itself from
memory while running menu selection. Author- Craig Allen

FCU & MCU are separate packages.  FCU is now available, MCU will
be released early 8/93.  You can find FCU & MCU at your local
retailer or buy direct from KCC.

                Keyboard Commander Corp.
                4839 SW 148 Ave., Suite 402
                Davie, FL 33330
                CompuServe 72370,2375
                Prodigy: DKRV26A

3.2.2 Ken ‘Stinger’ Richarson’s SIMPAK Utilities

The SIMPAK utilities include newer versions of Ken Richardson’s
old utilities such as the commtsr and f3pad. SIMPAK.??? Is
available at NEON.RAIN.COM and its mirrors.


The COMMTSR.COM file is a TSR that works with Spectrum
Holobytes's simulators. On serial communications: “Using  this
TSR you will see your connection times improve greatly. During
testing, this patch completed a 2400bps direct connection in just
over 2 minutes, a 57600bps V.42bis connection in just under 30

PADLOCK(formerly F3PAD)

PADLOCK is a TSR program that will add small indicator lights to
the Padlock and Scrolled lock views. These lights indicate
Afterburners, Airbrakes, Radar on/off, and ECM. Each indicator
has it's own color.


“COOLIE is a Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) program that will
work with the ThrustMaster FCS allowing you to program the
"Coolie Hat" and Buttons 3 and 4 to any keystroke on the
keyboard, (including SHFT/CTRL/ALT keys). You can also program
"double-click" funtions to any button or hat position. For
example: By default the Hat is programmed to switch between
forward, back, right and left views depending on what direction
you push it. If you push the Hat up twice, it will switch to
Padlock view.” --COOLIE.TXT

3.2.3 TM-STICK

TM-STICK.??? Is available from NEON.RAIN.COM and its mirrors. I
quote from TM-STICK.TXT

TM-STICK Features
This utility program gives you more flexible control of the
joystick routines in Falcon 3.04, MiG-29 1.03 and Hornet 1.01
(and earlier versions of these games). TM-STICK works with any
joystick, particularly the FCS from ThrustMaster.

Although the joystick routines from TM-STICK version 1.0 have
been incorporated into the latest versions of Falcon 3.0, MiG-29
and Hornet, TM-STICK version 2.0 will work with the latest
versions of these games and will not interfere with the new built-
in joystick routines.  TM-STICK version 2.0 will also add the new
routines to any earlier versions of Falcon 3.0 and MiG-29 (in
addition to fixing a problem with the rudders when using an
analog throttle).

TM-STICK allows you to set the null zone for each axis of two
joysticks independently of one another.  You can make the null
zones wider or narrower on each joystick axis.  If, for example,
your F-16 starts rolling right or left immediately when you first
move the joystick just a small amount, you can delay the start of
the roll by simply
increasing the width of the null zone on the X-axis of Joystick
1. This patch is also a very useful tool to use if you find that
your aircraft is "drifting" to one side or the other.  By
increasing the null zone, you can avoid this "drift."

If you have a ThrustMaster Mark II Weapons Control System, TM-
STICK  also allows you to set the position of the AB
(afterburner) detent on your Mark II WCS when using analog
throttle.  If you find that your AB detent is not setting your
throttle to (or very close to) 100% Military Power, then use this
patch to force it to do so.  The AB
detent should actually be set so that your Mark II WCS's throttle
handle in ANALOG will produce as close to 100% Military Power as
possible without actually entering afterburner stage 1.  As you
move forward out of the AB detent, your afterburners will kick

TM-STICK also removes the ILS view shift.  Now when the ILS mode
is turned on, your view will no longer shift down.  It will
remain like a normal view and the ILS view shift up/down will be


In addition to the sources listed below, patches and utilities
may be found in CompuServe Flight Simulator Forum (GO FSFORUM) in
Library 8, Modern Air Combat.


The Falcon 3.0 version D, 3.01.1, and 3.02 upgrades are available
directly from Spectrum HoloByte's Customer Support at:

Spectrum HoloByte
2490 Mariner Square Loop
Alameda, CA 94501
Attn: Customer Support
(510) 522-1164 (9am-5pm Pacific Time, M-F)

Spectrum HoloByte can also be reached from the INTERNET by
electronic mail. Their address is

Also there is the Spectrum HoloByte BBS at (510)522-8909. Where
you can obtain the latest patches and some third party utilities.


Falcon 3.0 patches and utilities are available for downloading
via anonymous FTP from host NEON.RAIN.COM in the pub/falcon3
directory. NEON.RAIN.COM is mirrored at: in /pub/msdos/falcon3

The Falcon 3.0 version D, version 3.01.1, and version 3.02
patches, once decompressed, each contain a readme file with
instructions, and an installation procedure as well as the
upgrade files. The utilities are also packaged in a compressed
format, and most also include documentation files. Freeware or
shareware decompression software like PKUNZIP, UNZIP, or UNARJ
are available from many anonymous FTP sites.

An index of the contents of the pub/falcon3 directory of
NEON.RAIN.COM's  FTP file archive is available for download from
that directory as a file named INDEX. In addition to the Falcon
3.0 patches and utilities, Falcon3 list members have uploaded
custom missions, help files, and other play-related items.

4.3 TRADE CENTER BBS and other SIMNET nodes

(coming soon)


(coming soon)


Several books are available for purchase from retail software
stores, or via mail order. In addition, a WAIS service containing
an archive of email and USENET postings relating to Falcon 3.0
and other flight simulators has been created.


>From Tom Basham:
Falcon 3.0: The Complete Handbook by Joel Powell and Tom Basham,
published by The Waite Group, ISBN 1-878739-29-8, and is
approximately 650 pages. Retails for $34.95 US, but can be found
cheaper at most chain book stores. The include 1.2M floppy
contains over 40 custom Red Flag missions used within the text,
Falcnr 3.1, f3maps 4.0, and the original F3 demo program. The
Waite Group is the only licensed, non-network, non-BBS
distributor of F3maps 4.0.

Chapters 1 through 7 are written to the new F3 user. These
chapters explain the basic info on aerodynamics, flying, radar
usage, landing, and weapons delivery. Chapters 8 thru 12 are
written to the advance user. Chapter 8 (43 pages) is dedicated to
mastering the Hi-Fi radar, including walking readers through two
of the included Red Flag missions. Chapter 9 (118 pages), the
"Advanced Flight School," steps readers through 8 Red Flag
missions designed to simulate a campaign and teach weapons usage,
coordination of multiple flights, allocation of resources, dive
bombing styles, and combat tactics for intercept, scramble,
escort, CAS, and bombing missions. Chapter 10 gives the inside
info on how campaign mode works and how the war operates. It also
gives valuable lessons on allocating resources, combat doctrine,
and designing waypoints for safe ingress and egress. Chapter 10
also lists the mission requirements for each type of campaign
mission. Chapter 11 goes into inside the mind of the computer
pilot, explaining the differences between different levels,
compares the strengths of the enemy's weapons, describes missile
evasion techniques, and gives detailed info on enemy airborne
radars. Basic ACM and BFM illustrations are also provided.
Chapter 12 is dedicated to the late arrival: OFT. New aircraft,
theaters, weapons, and updated mission success requirements for
OFT specific missions. Appendicies include the Combat Reference
Table (xrefing aircraft
type, weapons systems, radar type, and top speed at a glance),
fuel usage calculation tables, and upgrade info for F3maps and


Falcon3: The Official Combat Strategy Book, by Howard Bornstein,
published by Prima Publishing, ISBN 1-55958-160-3, 367 pages.
Retails for $27.95 US, available for less from chain book stores
or mail-order computer game retailers. Covers Falcon 3.0A through
Falcon OFT 3.01. Includes 3.5" diskette with 3.0D patch, the
utilities Falconer, F3MAPS, F3ILS2, and SHOWF3 for use with 3.0D
or 3.01, plus numerous Red Flag missions for use with book

Bornstein's book is divided into three parts. Part one describes
the versions of Falcon 3.0, explains difficulty levels, enemy and
wingman AI, flight models, and Instant Action scoring.
Part two explains
- HUD strategies for air-to-air and air-to-ground missions
- Radar modes
- Countermeasures including RWR and using chaff/flares
- Navigation and fuel management
- Dogfighting strategies including padlock and SCROLL-FORWARD
view strategies
- How to identify aircraft visually and electronically
- ACMI features
- Undocumented and hidden features

Part three presents various Red Flag tutorials for air-to-air and
air-to-ground missions, and an explanation of Falcon 3.0 Campaign


Falcon 3.0 Air Combat by Pete Bonanni and Bernard Yee, published
by Osborne McGraw-Hill,
ISBN 0-07-881701-3, 350 pages. Retails for $19.95.

Covers basic fighter maneuvers, beyond visual range radar
deployment, advanced air-to-air combat tactics, Falcon 3.0
weapons deployment, advanced surface attack tactics, and campaign
management. Essentally a rehash of the user manual with some
useful keyboard templates. Does not cover OFT.


As of April, 1993 no detailed information about this product is
available. This description was submitted to the Falcon3 mailing
list by Tom Basham:

"Falcon3: Air Combat Trainer is a combo of a book, mission disk
and a video tape being co-written by Pete Bonanni (F-16 pilot and
author) and another guy whose name I can't recall right now.
It'll sort of be an inhome lecture on ACM/BFM 101."


This book, by fighter pilot Robert Shaw, is considered by many to
be the most definitive book on ACM (air combat manoevering)
available to the general public, and is highly recommended as a
source of background information for the concepts presented in
Falcon 3.0 reference books and manuals. It is available from the
US Naval Institute, Spectrum HoloByte, and most well-stocked
public libraries.

Fighter Combat: the art and science of air-to-air combat
Author: Robert L. Shaw
Publisher: Patrick Stephens Limited,
                 Great Britain,
                 1986/1988 (2nd edition)
ISBN 1-85260-201-5
Copyright 1985/88 US Naval Institute


>From Jim Knutson (

I have been collecting Falcon 3 related articles since Feb. 1992.
Rather than keep all this information to myself, I decided to
write `The USENET Guide to Falcon 3' (can be found on  In the process of doing so, I created the
Falcon 3 wais library.  The wais library lets you lookup any
references to a particular topic.  For instance, if I was
interested in how to dodge sam missiles, I might ask about the
following topics "sam missile evasion dodge tactics", and I would
get back approximately 230 items related to those topics sorted
so that the most relevant items are first.  I can then browse
through the items looking for the answer to my question.

There are two methods to use the wais library and both require
Internet access. The first requires only telnet and the second
requires that a wais client be installed on your system.

The easiest way to lookup things in the wais library is to telnet
to and login as user wais.  For example:

     urbino> telnet
     Trying ...
     Connected to
     Escape character is '^]'.

     SunOS UNIX (quake)

     login: wais
     Last login: Tue Apr  6 08:35:51 from
     SunOS Release 4.1.1 (QUAKE) #3: Tue Jul 7 11:09:01 PDT 1992

     Welcome to swais.
     Please type user identifier (optional, i.e user@host):
     TERM = (vt100) sun-cmd
     Starting swais (this may take a little while)...

You will be presented with a list of about 400 different wais
libraries that you can query.  You want to scroll down to the
falcon3 library (usually referred to as a source).  Select
falcon3 as the source you want to ask and hit return to enter the
topic keywords you are interested in.

You will then be presented with a list of items that match those
topics.  You can select any of them for viewing.  You can even
have the items mailed to you.

The second method requires existing wais software on your host.
To perform the query, you will need the following source
description placed in the file ~/wais-sources/falcon3.src
(assuming you use a Unix box).

------ falcon3.src cut here ------
   :version  3
   :database-name "falcon3"
   :ip-name ""
   :tcp-port 8000
   :update-time (:time-interval :interval :daily)
   :cost 0.00
   :cost-unit :free
   :maintainer ""
   :description "Server created with WAIS release 8 b5 on Sep 30
15:33:02 1992 by

This is a collection of most of the mail and news traffic I have
seen on the Falcon 3 air combat flight simulator since Feb. 1992.
This database helped me write `The USENET Guide to Falcon 3.'

For maximum effect, be sure to increase the default maximum
number of results returned from 40 to something larger.

The files of type mail used in the index were:
------ end of falcon3.src ------

Here are some usage statistics in case anyone is interested.

WAIS traffic from Mar 22 10:26:12 1993 to Apr 6 10:46:40 1993 288
connections from 35 hosts.

                      Searches              #1 Query
Database        Pings /Results Expressions Count Question
...rces/falcon3     5  14/ 339          13     2 arizona-phoenix
falcon3             4  72/1530          59     5 falcon
flight_sim         27  98/2295          77    11 flight

210 answers, min/avg/max documents = 0/19/227

Retrieved Documents
Database        Retrievals
falcon3            38
...rces/falcon3   157
...urnal-titles     2
flight_sim         88
...s/flight_sim   159
total             444

Lastly, I would like to say that I also have a flight_sim wais
library that is a collection of all the flight sim related info I
have collected.



There are three methods by which one can make any version of
Falcon 3.0 or MiG-29 display aircraft objects in full detail,
similar in detail to objects displayed in the REPORTS screens:

- Copy OBJECTS onto SOBJECTS. Be sure to rename SOBJECTS to
another filename before doing this. You will need to copy the
renamed SOBJECTS back to successfully upgrade Falcon 3.0 to a new
- for EMM386 users, start Falcon 3.0 or MiG-29 by typing LOADHI
- for QEMM386 users, before running Falcon, type LOADHI/LINK

There are some potential problems that may arise from using these
techniques, as described in this post from Tom Neff:

From: (Tom Neff)
Subject: Max Falcon Detail: The Straight Dope

I got utterly sick of explaining this at one point and swore off,
but I guess it's been a while.

Falcon uses one of two wireframe databases, filenamed OBJECTS
(the complex one) or SOBJECTS (the simple one) depending on how
much free memory it thinks you have when it loads -- if your CPU
is fast enough to begin with, which most people's are these days.
With SOBJECTS loaded you see more detail on friendly and enemy
planes (your own plane detail doesn't vary).

The purpose of the LOADHIGH/LOADHI trick is to d**k with the
segment pointers so that Falcon thinks you actually have a lot
more free memory than you really do, and thus decides to grant
you SOBJECTS anyway. There is no essential difference between the
DOS LOADHIGH and QEMM LOADHI commands in this respect.  People
for whom only LOADHI works are probably simply getting more free
memory from QEMM than they were from vanilla EMM386, and so
winning that way.

(By the way, I cannot stress highly enough the wisdom of
maintaining _separate_ configurations for different "missions" on
a multipurpose computer.  There is no excuse for worrying about
how to keep your color document scanner driver and PopCalc 5.99
loaded underneath Falcon 3! When the game is loaded, you want to
give it every CPU cycle and byte of memory you've got, not waste
time worrying about interactions with irrelevant software. When
you're done playing, just take twenty seconds and reboot. There
are a dozen little multi-config maintainers out there, or you can
write your own.  I just cobbled together a couple of batch

The other max-detail approach, which SH calls dangerous but
someone tired of banging away at LOADHI[gh] combos might call
infallible, is to rename SOBJECTS to some safe-keeping name and
COPY OBJECTS to SOBJECTS.  Now both wireframe databases are the
same, so even if Falcon decides you only
deserve the simple one, you get the complex one anyway.  The
downside to this trick is that if you really _didn't_ have enough
memory for SOBJECTS, Falcon may lock up on you unexpectedly.  The
quickest way to find out is to create a Red Flag mission with
four _different_ aircraft types in your flight, then launch and
pound the '7' key.  If you can see the whole flight in one screen
at max magnification, you're in the clear.

The other problem with copying and renaming files around, like
the various user contributed "patches," is that later version
upgrades will bomb verifying your files!  (Many MiG-29 buyers are
probably being reminded of this right now.)  Make sure you have
the capability to "return to cherry" when you need to.

All right, that's out of my system.  Somebody save it, because
nobody reads archives and the question will be asked again next
week... :-)

[Newer Versions of DOS from MS-DOS 6 onwards now support multiple
bootup parameters. It makes it very easy to maintain a multi-
configuration PC. Check your DOS manual for more.]


Toggle time of day                 (shift + T)
Hidden down view (great for BDA!)       (shift + U)
Automatic wing leveler                  (Ctrl + Alt + 5 (keypad))

The time of day toggle changes the apparent time of day you are
flying within the simulation.  If you save the mission to ACMI,
the true time of day for the mission is recorded.  It does not
affect the campaigns or Red Flag times of day -- just think of it
as the poor man's Falcon 3.0 LANTIRN. The hidden down view
pretends you have a glass-bottomed cockpit floor (don't you
wish!) which is helpful in determining if your dumb bombs hit
the target.  Just make sure you're in autopilot and have no
hostiles bearing down on you when invoking this function!  The
automatic wing leveler instantly levels you out from whatever
attitude you may be -- even when you are completely disabled from
a hit and are out of the game (assuming you haven't been blown
away to smithereens by missile or gunfire).  You can gently
flutter to the ground with 0 speed and wings level (or at least
until you are in a safe enough attitude to pull the loud handle).


     Did you know that as long as you meet the landing parameters
of the F-16 (gear down, flaps down, speed brakes out, airspeed
around 150-180 knots and angle of attack of around 10 degrees)
you can safely land anywhere -- road, desert, ground, even on the
water! (Has GD created a seaplane version of the Falcon? -- I
don't think so!  At least you can pretend they did!) Hopefully
you can save your skin and live on to fight again.


These features are accessed by first pressing the pause key (P)
then immediately pressing the Tab key.  You are initially put in
a sort of chase view -- but with a major difference: the view ID
is now labeled “PAUSE” and the following keys will help you get
around in this mode (known also as PAUSE-TAB or DEBUG mode):

(arrow keys not on keypad)         Move forward, backward, right
                                                  left in the
campaign theater

(Page Up/Page Down)           Increase/decrease altitude
(F3)                     Rotate right
(F4)                     Rotate left
(Shift + F3)                  Rotate up
(Shift + F4)                  Rotate down
(Ctrl + rotation keys above)       Fine tune rotation
(plus key)                    Increase movement factor
(minus key)                   Decrease movement factor
(D)                      Debug mode -- displays
                         map coordinates and frame rate
(T)                      Enter Transporter Room --
                         teleport to any coordinate in
the campaign map
(tilde (~))                   Continue action while in
                         PAUSE-TAB mode.  Press again
                         to turn off.

(WARNING: If you wish to continue the action while in PAUSE-TAB
mode, be sure you are in autopilot before entering this mode.
Otherwise, you might have to fight a runaway airplane!)


This appears on the upper left of your screen when debug mode is

          XXXX XXXX

A clearer example:

          0128 0012
          -00071368 -00445036 0001400 00025

     The numbers on the top two rows are an internal coordinate
system that is interesting but useless unless you have a list of
coordinates (and SH ain't gonna provide!).  The second row
contains a set of coordinates which are better -- they are,
respectively, the North-South (NS) and East-West (EW) coordinates
within the Falcon world you are flying (in any theatre). Highly
useful for locating some unusual features left by the Falcon 3
programmers.  The third group of numbers in this row is your
altitude in feet (AGL) times 2, while the fourth number is the
"speed" while moving through the world.  Note that the NS/EW
coordinates may have a minus sign before the number groups.  The
third line is your actual frame rate (images per second).  If you
exit PAUSE-TAB mode while in Debug mode, the debug info remains
on screen while in the simulation.


(Includes coordinates (NS/EW), heading and altitude)


"Elvis Lives" neon sign -- NS -71368, EW -445036
               Heading: 8 degrees  Altitude: 300 feet

"Vegas Vic" neon sign -- NS -93397, EW -484505
               Heading: 264 degrees     Altitude: 200 feet

"Vegas Vic" is the famous neon cowboy sign in downtown Las Vegas
at the Pioneer casino.  You might also see what looks like the
Landmark hotel nearby (that odd-looking space needle casino
which, sadly, is no longer in operation).  Installing Hornet adds
the Luxor and the MGM Grand Hotel.

The secret source of the Grand Canyon (a giant faucet!) --
     NS -365316, EW 1672511
     Heading: 44 degrees Altitude: 4340 feet

Kayak in the Colorado River -- NS -296452, EW 699396
     Heading: 109 degrees     Altitude 56 feet

Donkeys hiking the Grand Canyon -- NS -227964, EW 476323
     Heading: 59 degrees Altitude: 1900 feet

Nellis 7-target gunnery range -- NS 715552, EW -172701
     Heading: 0 degrees  Altitude: 7000 feet

Nellis 11-target gunnery range -- NS 990123, EW -800905
     Heading: 0 degrees  Altitude: 7000 feet

"Falcon 3" in the desert -- NS 812122, EW -723375
     Heading: 0 degrees  Altitude: 10,000 feet


Permanently destroyed bridge -- NS 1111070, EW 74120
     Heading: 348 degrees     Altitude: 25 feet

Well, no need to target this installation!


Godzilla vs the Love Boat -- NS -846508, EW -1601408
     Heading: 141 degrees          Altitude: 80 feet

Dead man in the water -- NS -00034468, EW -01466383
    Heading: 270 degrees    Altitude: 20 feet

The Panama, Israel, Korea and Pakistan theaters have not really
been explored for hidden jewels -- yet!!  Who knows what may be


NOTE: Although you can capture the screen within the simulation,
you must have a program called SHOWF3 to view them.  This is
available through Compuserve's FSFORUM or packaged with the
"Falcon 3: The Official Combat Strategy Book" disk (sorry, only a
3.5" disk is available). It is also available at NEON.RAIN.COM
and its mirrors An updated version of SHOWF3 is sold with the
Falcon/MiG/Hornet Commander Utilities and will allow you to save
your screen shots in GIF or PCX format.

     Take screen shot within simulation      (Ctrl + Alt + N)

     Take screen shot in non-sim area
     (war room, briefing, etc.)              (Ctrl + N)

     Take shot within ACMI
     (Operation Fighting Tiger only)         (Z)

     Take shot in PAUSE-TAB mode        (N)

This is how Spectrum Holobyte was able to shoot the screen shots
you see in their ads.  You cannot take snapshots of the opening
animations, nor of the mission start/end animations. Neither can
you take a snapshot of the config screens or of the Mission


Yes, the ACES II ejection seat is accurately modeled.  ACES II
works as a “zero-zero” (will work at zero speed and zero
altitude) ejection seat. You will probably need more than a few
sessions at the chiropractor if you do this in real life.

While in ACMI, the  key clears out the VCR control panel
for a full-screen view of ACMI or VCR mode.

The Mission Computer (a database of all the objects, air and
ground in the simulation), buried within the Campaign and Red
Flag options, has hidden view controls.  They are:

     1, Shift 1 controls yaw.
     2, Shift 2 controls pitch.
     3, Shift 3 controls roll.
     + increase rotation speed.
     - decrease rotation speed.

Getting tired of the daily Campaign screen every time you get
ready to fly?
Hit  to go right into the mission.

Wanna fly a campaign with missions YOU decide? Unfortunately,
this only works in the Kurile Islands theater.  First, assign a
squadron to fly the Kurile Islands.  If you have a squadron
already flying there, this will not work.  Then click your mouse
over the man checking monitors on the left -- you MUST click his
head -- and you will see him say "Yes, Sir!".  Commit to the
campaign.  After the canned opening briefing a special "Choose
Mission" screen appears. Note that "PG" missions are
pregenerated.  This is a great way to find out what the UMF looks

Feel like seeing the edge of space?  Load LESSON1 in Red Flag.
Then get on the runway, apply wheel brakes let 'er rip with the
afterburners.  Take off the wheel brakes as soon as you sense
motion.  Raise the nose at about 130 knots and IMMEDIATELY raise
the gear.  Put the nose up to about an 75-degree angle, gradually
raising it to 90 degrees. Keep it on AB5 until you run out of air
at about 65-70,000 feet.



The high-fidelity flight model in Falcon 3.0 was originally
developed for ASAT, or Advanced Situational Awareness Trainer,
which was an air intercept trainer for the USAF. Its inclusion in
Falcon 3.0 has generated many questions as to how it behaves. The
following remarks are applicable to the
high-fidelity flight model in all versions of Falcon 3.0:

- Hi-fi flight model does not function at airspeeds under approx
270 knots. Below this, the player's aircraft is controlled by the
complex flight model. There is a noticeable transition when this
airspeed threshold is crossed.
- Hi-fi flight models weight limitations somewhat, in that planes
loaded in excess of 32,000 pounds will crash as soon as they
exceed 270 knots in a takeoff.
- Hi-fi flight model doesn't model G limitations (nor does
Complex), so you can pull 9 G's with a full load of fuel and
ordnance. However, you'll lose airspeed in the turn, until you
cross below the 270 knot threshold and re-enter Complex flight
model. If you stay in a turn, you can yo-yo between the two
flight models indefinitely.
- Hi-fi flight model doesn't model drag effects; you can travel
at 450 knots at zero throttle indefinitely.
- Hi-fi flight model's airbrakes are dramatically more effective
than those in Complex flight model.
- Hi-fi flight model causes your F16 to travel at least 40 knots
faster Complex flight model at the same throttle settings

Note that wingmen, enemies, and your plane in Autopilot always
use Complex flight model, not Hi-fi.



When using the COPY LEADER button on the Arm Planes menu screen,
sometimes it causes the hard drive to spin but nothing happens.
What's happening?

Subject: Re: multiple topics

The copy leader loadout hang up - this is not a hangup. No, it's
not 8-). It sometimes is *VERY* slow. I mean *REALLY* slow. I
mean, like 3 or 4 minutes slow. But, everytime I have waited on
it, it has always spun the hdisk continuously, and always
returned. After I installed smartdrv, the problem has completely
went away. I think their disk read needs some optimization and
using a cache just speeds the whole process up. My observations
here have been independantly verified by many people on CIS. This
doesn't mean the pause ain't a bug, it just ain't a lockup 8-).


The Falcon 3.0 manual says I can set waypoints so as to let my
wingmen land at airfields other than the one we started at. But,
it doesn't work. Why?

Subject: Re: multiple topics

I'll throw my $.02 into the ring as well. Wrt to landing, it
seems SH's right hand is unaware of what SH's left hand is
saying. Way before F3 was publicly released, we (the beta crew)
had asked for a "bingo field" option, where we could place a LAND
waypoint over a different base and the wingmen would land there.
This never worked. The F3 manual still mentions it, but you are
never allowed to select LAND at any airbase other than the one
you started from.

Next came Shft-B. Early on everyone realized you might need to
bypass a waypoint. After a few of use accidently hit SHFT-B when
going for SHFT-N, SH added the SHFT-V "previous waypoint"
command. At no time did anyone ever mention pilots looking for
bingo fields.

While working on F3:TCH, this was a hot topic for me. As each
patch came out, I wrestled with No.19 and various programmers to
find out *exactly* what changed so as to keep the book current. I
was flatly told by Gary Stotlemeyer (sp?) over the phone that
your F-16s would never land anywhere except their origination

OK, so here's some comments to those who have posted: 1) To Tom
Neff (are you "Rattler" from FSFORUM?) how did you verify that
the allied planes landed at another base? Did you watch it on a
VCR? Did you get the (now mythical) "pilot is uavailable because
he is at another airbase" message? If you have a VCR, PLEASE send
it to  me. I'd prefer to receive it on CI$, but can accept
UUENCODED mail at this address.

2) For Jim, re: landing at bingo fields when low on fuel. Again,
I have not ever been able to reproduce this. I've just had them
continue to scream "Fuel is low" every few seconds over and over
and over again. Have you ever seen one of your F-16s land at
another base?

3) Also for Jim: I have used your idea of putting a waypoint over
an allied base, even though I couldn't select LAND as an action.
When I did get into trouble, I'd land there. This worked well
except none of my other planes would land with me. At any rate, I
highly reccommend this tactic.

4) Regarding Atlas' comments, a) this is not what the programmers
told me personnally (that was before OFT, though), and b) In
Kuwait, Allied forces almost always capture one or two airbases
due east of my starting base. Some of my waypoint constructs
should have placed them in Atlas' second category, but to date I
have never witnessed an allied plan landing at another base.

This whole thing is a very important topic, though. If just once
we can get a VCR shot of this happening (or maybe a good photo of
a sasquatch), this revolutionizes how a lot of us fight
campaigns.  Many of us don't utilize bingo field tactics because
we didn't think they worked. If they do, however, that opens a
lot of options,  especially later in a campaign when allied
forces have captured additional bases. If anyone can get this on
VCR, please send it to me at "bash@ihlpb.ATT.COM".


Ground targets in all versions of Falcon 3.0 often have a special
place where they must be hit, or the program won't give credit
for hits. In general, if a hit causes the target to change color
or shape, you'll get credit for it. Here are two common
situations and their solutions:

RUNWAYS: Even though I manage to hit a runway with Durandals, I
don't seem to be able to get the program to acknowledge that I've
hit it. Why?

Subj: Re: Hitting Runways

...I routinely take out runways with just two durandals. The
question of how to take out runways in F3 comes up often.  There
is a magic spot on every runway that you must hit.  If you zoom
all the way in during the briefing, you will see the red bulleye
right on this spot. I believe it's the point closest to the
hangar.  What I do is to take along Mavericks as well as a pair
of durandals. When I get close to the runway, I do the following:

- select Mavericks
- cycle through the targets until it points at a spot on the
- line up the plane so it points right at that spot (the "magic
spot" :^)
- select durandals
- bombs away--don't miss!

It is actually easier to spot this point if you don't fly along
the length of the runway, contrary to what you might think is the
ideal approach angle.

RAILYARDS: Even though I hit the railyard target with GBU-15's, I
didn't get credit for the hit. Why?

Subj: Bombing a railyard

I have also attacked railyards and not have the after-action
wrapup give me credit for it. According to the documentation,
campaign mode bombing missions are successful if any target at
the target site is destroyed, and if I remember correctly from
the OFT manual, it says that GBU15's and the heavier "slicks"
(Mk84's?) are needed to damage a railyard. Did you load out your
attacking flight with GBU15's, by chance? If so, it looks like
you are a victim of a bug in the way that the game deals with
guided weapons and railyard targets. Here's what I've observed:

Notice that each railyard target is an area of RR tracks with a
box in the center. You need to hit the box in order to damage the
target. In OFT, and probably 3.0D and earlier versions as well,
if you launch on a railyard with GBU15's or other guided weapons
they will strike the yard and not the box in the center. If you
lock up a GBU15 on a railyard, and look at the representation on
your multi-function display, you'll see how it's going to miss
that box. I'm guessing that happens to your wingmen, too.

So, for scoring purposes, you will miss every time if you use
guided weapons on a railyard. The only way to hit it is with
Mk84's "slicks".


From: (Greg Cisko)
Subject: avoiding SAMs

Evading AA missles has always been difficult for me. I
successfully could shake an AA missle about 05% of the time. This
was either radar or IR models. I had asked for advice. There was
the usual advice about  changing direction & putting max g-s on
the jet ect... I still couldn't do it. Then I read that when an
IR AA missle is launched, this person would dodge them by pulling
back on the stick & releasing flares. This was nothing more than
a loop, & I didn't think it would work. Well it does work. I can
now dodge over 90% of the AA missles coming my way. I do all of
my dogfighting in paddlock, so I am not sure how well it works in
other views. In general it shouldn't matter at all though.
So...when I  hear a missle launch warning I hit paddlock view. It
tells you what kind  of missle got launched. (this is probably
why paddlock should be used!)

If it is a SAM(R), turn on your ECM pod & release chaff. If the
missile  won't unlock turn on your radar & turn toward the

If it is an APEX (AA Radar) pull back on the stick & release a
lot of chaff.

If it is an ATOLL or MAGIC (AA IR) pull back on the stick &
release a lot of flares. Also turning off your AB couldn't hurt.


By Chuck "Nuke'em" Corway
(CIS: 72672,1553)

Yes indeed, those squadrons with the funny-sounding names in
Falcon 3.0 ARE genuine active U.S. Air Force fighter squadrons
flying F-16s.    Below is a listing of the Falcon 3.0 squadrons,
identified through the quarterly publication World Air Power
Journal (Volume 5, Spring 1991).  Squadrons are identified by
nickname first (as in the game), the unit number, parent wing,
location, and tail code (the two large letters on the tail of
most F-16s).

TFS -- Tactical Fighter Squadron
TFG -- Tactical Fighter Group
TFW -- Tactical Fighter Wing
TTW -- Tactical Training Wing
TFTS -- Tactical Fighter Training Squadron
FIG -- Fighter Interceptor Group
FIS  -- Fighter Interceptor Squadron
AFB -- Air Force Base (USA only)
AB -- Air Base (overseas except United Kingdom)
ANG -- Air National Guard
ANGB -- Air National Guard Base
AFRes -- Air Force Reserve.

NOTE: As of 1 June 1992, the designation "Tactical" disappeared
from fighter units with the deactivation of Tactical Air Command.
The new command that replaces TAC is now called Air Combat
Command -- not to worry, the old TAC winged sword insignia has
been adopted by ACC.  For clarity, the old designation remains.

Fighting Tenth           10th TFS, 50th TFW, Hahn AB, Germany
Hooters                       17th TFS, 363rd TFW, Shaw AFB, SC
Falcons                       33rd TFS, 363rd TFW, Shaw AFB, SC
Rams                          34th TFS, 388th TFW, Hill AFB, UT
Black Widows             421st TFS, 388th TFW, Hill AFB UT (HL)
Squids                        613th TFS, 401st TFW, Torrejon AB,
Spain (TJ)
Dragons                       512th TFS, 86th TFW, Ramstein AB,
Germany (RS)
Lucky Devils             614th TFS, 401st TFW, Torrejon AB, Spain
Fighting Eagles          612th TFS, 401st TFW, Torrejon AB, Spain
Swamp Fox(es)            157th TFS,  169th TFG, South Carolina
                              McEntire ANGB, SC (SC)*
Flying Fiends                 36th TFS, 51st TFW, Osan AB, Korea
Black Knights            526th TFS, 86th TFW, Ramstein AB,
Germany (RS)
White Knights            70th TFS, 347th TFW, Moody AFB, GA (MY)
Phantoms                      35th TFS, 8th TFW,  Kunsan AB,
Korea (WP)
Sun Devils                    302nd TFS, 944th TFG (AFRes), Luke
Lightning Lancers        68th TFS, 347th TFW, Moody AFB GA (MY)
Fighting Foujins         4th TFS, 388th TFW, Hill AFB, UT (HL)
Michigan Wolves          107th FIS, 191st FIG, Selfridge ANGB, MI
                              (no tail code carried -- this
squadron is also known as the "Six Pack")

* Later photos (taken during Desert Storm) deletes this code and
replaces it with a blue and white "South Carolina" fin flash.

Here are other USAF F-16 squadrons worthy of mention, that should
have been, but were not included in the game.  Many of the ANG
squadrons do not carry the two-letter tailcodes that are pretty
much standard throughout the Air Force.

Panthers                      81st TFS, 52nd TFW, Spangdahlem AB,
Germany (SP)
Fighting Hawks           23rd TFS, 52nd TFW, Spangdahlem AB,
Germany (SP)
Warhawks                 480th TFS, 52nd TFW, Spangdahlem AB,
Germany (SP)
Gamecocks                19th TFS, 363rd TFW, Shaw AFB, SC (SW)
Headhunters              80th TFS, 8th TFW, Kunsan AB, Korea (WP)
The Boys from Syracuse        138th TFS, 174th TFG, New York Air
National Guard, Syracuse, NY (NY)
Wild Ducks               309th TFS, 31st TFW, Homestead AFB, FL
Knights                       308th TFS, 31st TFW, Homestead AFB,
Tophats                       310th TFTS, 58th TTW, Luke AFB, AZ
Sidewinders              311th TFTS, 58th TTW, Luke AFB, AZ (LF)
Scorpions                     312th TFTS, 58th TTW, Luke AFB, AZ
Happy Hooligans          119th FIG, North Dakota ANG, Fargo, ND
Ace in the Hole          111th FIS, 147th FIG, Ellington ANGB, TX
Green Mountain Boys      134th FIS, 158th TFG, Vermont ANG,
Burlington, VT
Jersey Devils                 119th FIS, 177th FIG, New Jersey
ANG, Atlantic City, NJ
Fly'n Illini                  170th TFS, 183rd TFG, Illinois ANG,
Springfield, IL (SI)
Jayhawks                      184th TFG, Kansas ANG, McConnell
Flying Razorbacks        184th TFS, 188th TFG, Arkansas ANG, Fort
Smith, AR (FS)
Florida Makos            93rd TFS, 482nd TFW (AFRes), Homestead
Diamondbacks             466th TFS, 419th TFW (AFRes), Hill AFB,
"Sierra Hotel"           465th TFS, 507th TFG (AFRes), Tinker
AFB, OK ("S*** Hot") (SH)
Big Sky Country          120th FIG, Montana ANG, Great Falls, MT
Mile High Militia        120th TFS, 140th TFW, Colorado ANG,
Buckley ANGB, Colorado (CO)

If you're REALLY serious about realism when using your squadrons
in a campaign, here are some pointers:

Korea campaign: Use the Flying Fiends or the Phantoms squadron.

Desert Storm/Kuwait campaign: Falcons, Hooters, Lucky Devils,
Squids, Fighting Eagles, Fighting Tenth, Swamp Fox, Dragons,
Black Knights, Rams, Black Widows.  Interesting geographical
error:  King
Khalid Military City is actually in Saudi Arabia, NOT in Kuwait!
Many of the units were based all over Saudi Arabia, Oman and
Turkey. KKMC during the war was host to an A-10 squadron.

For all the other theaters, take your pick.  With the advent of
the new "super" wing concept, (currently the 3rd, 4th, 23rd,
343rd Wings, with various types of aircraft) chances are that in
time of crisis, one or more of these wings would be sent.

Well, that's it for now.  Enjoy Falcon 3.0 knowing that these
squadrons are real and are not the contrived product of a game
designer's mind -- well, if you want to strive for total realism,
you've gotta do your homework!

Check six,
Nuke 'em

PS: If any FSFORUM member can come up with more (official and
semi-official) F-16 squadron nicknames other than those listed
here, just post me a message at the above E-mail address.

The following list contains each of the squdrons included in
Hornet:NSF.  I collected this information from World Power
Jorunal's "US Navy & Marine Corp Air Power Directory".  This was
published in late 1992.  As such, it may not be entirely acurate.
However, I would highly recommend this book for anyone interested
in Naval/Marine air power.

I have included a suggested theater for several of the squadrons
due to historical significance, current station or other similar
factor.  Not all squadrons have a suggested theater.

Navy Squadron  Designation Base & Tail Letters         Theater(s)

Valions             VFA-15      NAS Cecil Field, FL: 'AJ'   Iraq
        The Valions were converted from A-7 Corsair IIs to F/A-
18As on October
        1, 1986.  It is part of CVW-8 aboard the USS Theodore

Fist of the Fleet   VFA-25      NAS Lemoore, CA: 'NK'
        VFA-25 was founded January 1, 1943 and is part of CVW-14.

Sunliners           VFA-81      NAS Cecil Field, FL: 'AA'   Iraq
        Operating as part of CVW-17 aboard the Saratoga, the
Sunliners took
        part in the Persian Gulf War from its inception.  The
Hornet manual
        discusses the F/A-18s versatility and cites an incident
in the Gulf
        War in which two Hornets on route to a ground strike
shoot down two
        MiG-21 and then continue on to complete their ground
strike.  Lt.
        Cmdr. Mark Fox and Lt. Nick Mongillo from VFA-81 were the
two pilots
        that performed actually performed so valiantly.

Sidewinders         VFA-86      NAS Cecil Field, FL: 'AB'   Iraq
        As part of CVW-1, the Sidewinders was stationed aboard
the USS America
        and flew combat missions during the Gulf War.

Golden Warriors     VFA-87      NAS Cecil Field, FL: 'AJ'   Iraq
        Like VFA-15, Valions, the Golden Warriors are part of CVW-
8 aboard the
        Roosevelt.  It is mentioned that they took part in the
Gulf War.

Rough Riders        VFA-125     NAS Lemoore, CA: 'NJ'       Iraq
        This squadron is part of the West Coast FRS squardron for
        training.  It, too, was deployed during the Gulf War.

Wildcats            VFA-131     NAS Cecil Field, FL: 'AG'   Iraq,
Israel, Bosnia
        The Wildcats were established relatively recently as a
brand new
        Hornet squadron (1983).  It is part of CVW-7 aboard the
USS Dwight D.
        Eisenhower today.  However, in 1986, this squadron flew
from the
        USS Coral Sea and took part in operations versus Libya.
        joining the Ike, VFA-131 took part in Desert Shield but
returned to
        the Med prior to Desert Storm.

Privateers          VFA-132     NAS Lemoore, CA: 'AE'       Iraq,
        Also a relatively new squadron, the Privateers began
operating the
        F/A-18C on January 9, 1984.  Like VFA-131, VFA-132 saw
combat in Libya
        in 1986.  The Privateers do have an interesting story
about an unusual
        kill.  It seems that in 1991 Lt. Bill Reilly was sent up
to shoot down
        a crippled E-2C Hawkeye over the Med after the crew
parachuted to
        safety.  On June 1, 1992, VFA-132 was disestablished when
the Forrestal
        (its current carrier assignment) was converted to a
training carrier.

Knighthawks         VFA-136     NAS Cecil Field, FL: 'AG'   Iraq,
        This squadron flew with the Wildcats during actions in
Libya and Desert

Golden Dragon       VFA-192     NAS Atsugi, Japan: 'NF'     Japan
        Actually called the World Famous Golden Dragons, VFA-192
was formed at
        the end of World War II as VFA-153.  During it's long
history, the
        Golden Dragon's have flown FJ-4B Furies and A-7 Corsair

Marine Sqdns.  Designation Base & Tail Letters         Theater(s)

Silver Eagles       VMFA-115    MCAS Beaufort, SC: 'VE'
Japan, Iraq
        During Vietnam, VMFA-115 flew F-4 Phantoms and has made
deployments in
        Japan and Denmark.  It was also part of the Marines land-
based efforts
        during Desert Storm.

Crusaders           VMFA-122    MCAS Beaufort, SC: 'DC'
Japan, Iraq
        Also an ex-Phantom squadron, the Crusaders have toured
Japan and

Lancers             VMFA-212    MCAS Kaneohe Bay, HI: 'WD'
        Another ex-Phantom sqadron.

Red Devils          VMFA-232    MCAS Kaneohe Bay, HI: 'WT' Japan
        During Desert Storm, VMFA-232 was deployed to Bahrain.

Death Angels        VMFA-235    MCAS Kaneohe Bay, HI: 'DB'
        The 'Angels' are an old squadron with a long history in
the F-4

Thunderbolts        VMFA-251    MCAS Beaufort, SC: 'DW'
        The Thunderbolts became the third Marine unit on the East
        to receive the F/A-18.  It shares its nickname with the

Checkertails        VMFA-312    MCAS Beaufort, SC: 'DR'
        Actually called the Checkerboards, VMFA-312 is also an ex-

Black Knights       VMFA-314    MCAS El Toro, CA: 'VW'
        The Black Knights cruised with the USS Coral Sea and saw
combat during
        Operations Pairie Fire and El Dorado against Libya.
Additionally, it
        has been deployed to Egypt and Japan.

Death Rattlers      VMFA-323    MCAS El Toro, CA: 'WS'
        Participating with VMFA-314, the 'Rattlers' saw action in
Libya as
        well as Egypt and Japan.

Shamrocks           VMFA-333    MCAS Beaufort, SC: 'DN'     Iraq
        From July, 1971, until December of that same year, the
Shamrocks were
        the first Marine unit (at that time operating F-4
Phantoms) to be
        stationed aboard an aircraft carrier.  In 1972, Maj.
Thomas 'Bear'
        Lasseter and Capt. John Cummings shot down the only kill
by a Marine
        flying crew during Vietnam.  The loser in this fight was
a MiG-21.
        Also, the squadron was deployed to Bahrain during Desert
Storm and flew
        many CAS, Interdiction and SEAD missions during the war.
It was
        established March 31, 1992.

Warlords            VMFA-451    MCAS Beaufort, SC: 'VM'
        In 1989, the Warlords was assigned to CVW-13 aboard the
Coral Sea.

Grey Ghosts         VMFA-531    MCAS El Toro, CA: 'EC'      Korea
        Among other things, the 'Ghosts' were the first Marine
        squadron to be stationed in SE Asia.


(NOTE: Digitized voices can only be heard with a mininum of 2MB
RAM -- otherwise, text only will flash on upper screen.  Most of
these calls are digitized, however some generic radio calls are
reproduced with static instead of a digitized voice.)

"Negative. Pigeons to home plate" -- Return to base.  Waypoint
cannot be bypassed beyond this one.

"Kilo Mike Alpha" -- Kiss My Ass.  You have ordered your wingman
to do something really stupid such as breaking low at less than
100 feet -- and obviously he doesn't mince words!  Rarely heard.

"I'm picking up a spike" -- Wingman has detected radar (air or
ground) being pointed at the formation.

"Radar contact (bearing in degrees and range in miles)" --
Wingman has a solid radar contact.  This is a steering cue for
interception to a possible bogie.

"Stranger (X o'clock)" -- Unexpected friendly aircraft flying in
the area, be careful.

"Waypoint (X)(bearing in degrees and range in miles)".  From
AWACS -- steering cue to the waypoint bearing.  Falcon 3.03
replaces this call with static, but the text is not changed.

"Unable" -- Wingman is unable to comply with your command.  Heard
more often (and sounds better than "Kilo Mike Alpha").

"Copy fence check" -- Wingman has checked all weapons ready for
action. Heard only if Shift + E is pressed with no action in

"Be advised, I've gone winchester" -- Wingman has run out of all
weapons (air-to-air/air-to-ground), except guns.

"Copy, disengage, will resume" -- Wingman has been ordered to
"knock it off" by leader.

"Clean, clear and naked" -- Nothing on radar, no visual
sightings, no threat indications.  You can relax for a bit.

"Fox one!" -- Wingman has launched an AMRAAM.

"Fox two!" -- Wingman has launched a Sidewinder (AIM-9P (Papa))

"Fox two mike!" -- Wingman has launched a Sidewinder (AIM-9M

"Atoll! Atoll!" -- Rear-aspect infrared missile (AA-2 Atoll)
fired at your wingman.  All you get is the "LNH" (missile launch
indicator).  Atoll is a Soviet copy of the Sidewinder.

"Magic! Magic!" -- All-aspect infrared missile (Matra R.550
Magic) fired at your wingman.  This is a French-built
A-A missile similar to the AIM-9M

"Apex inbound!" -- An active radar-homing missile (AA-7 Apex) has
been fired and is inbound.  The Apex is a Soviet A-A missile
similar in performance to the AIM-7 Sparrow.

"Guns! Guns! Guns!" -- Wingman firing M61A1 cannon.

"Flame out! Flame out!" -- Wingman has suffered severe engine
damage due to a hit or has run out of fuel.  Usually followed by
"Ejecting!" or "I'm hit! I'm hit!"

"Bandit! Bandit! (X o'clock)"  Enemy aircraft sighted, usually
followed by clock position.  Wingman will usually ask for
permission to engage if this is the first bandit encounter.

"Singer high!"  Surface to air missile launched.  Rarely heard,
since the "LNH" indicator immediately lights up. TAKE IMMEDIATE

"Request you check joker" -- Wingman is low on fuel and is
requesting you check your fuel state.

"Be advised, fuel is low!" -- Wingman is dangerously low on fuel.
Any action other than returning to base could cause a flameout.

"Fuel critical, fuel critical" -- Wingman is running on fumes.
If an immediate return to base or to a bingo fuel airfield is not
called, he will be forced to eject.

"Maverick, Maverick!" -- Wingman has launched a Maverick (AGM-
65B/D) air to-ground missile at a ground target.

"Rockets away!" -- Wingman has launched LAU-5003A rockets at a
ground target.

"Bombs away!" -- Wingman has released bombs or other stores at a
ground target.

"Closing on ground targets" -- Ground targets ahead, wingman
beginning attack run.  Followed by "Request permission to

"Closing on primary target" -- Primary target ahead, wingman
beginning bomb run.

"I'm already committed!"  -- Wingman has started attack run and
cannot break off.  Only heard if pressing (Shift + E) after
granting permission to attack.

"I'm not engaged!" -- Wingman is not engaged in attack.  Only
heard if (Shift + Q) is pressed with no target designated.

"I'm hit! I'm hit!" -- Wingman has been hit, almost always
followed by the "Ejecting!" command.  This wingman is out of the
fight (obviously!).  If no communication has been heard from any
one of your wingmen for some time after an engagement, assume the
worst has happened and press on.  Chances are he either punched
out or was hit and killed.

"Music on!" --  Wingman has turned on ECM pod.

"PULL UP! PULL UP! PULL UP!" (voice message system (Bitchin'
Betty)) -- You are in immediate danger of becoming a powered lawn
dart (they're not even sold any more!!).  If you do not take
immediate action such as pulling back on the stick you're a
goner.  In addition, a converging arrow cue is visible. getting
closer as you get on a first-name basis with the gophers! It will
shut off only if you take the appropriate action.

"CAUTION!-CAUTION!" (Bitchin' Betty) -- Activates only when the
Master Caution indicator lights up on the glareshield.  It only
turns off if you go to the right interior view, where the
warning/caution panel is located so you can see the item that
caused the light to go on in the first place.  If ALL the lights
are lit up, you better hope your ACES II seat works!!

"WARNING!-WARNING! (pause) WARNING!-WARNING!" (Bitchin' Betty) --
Indicates a major systems failure has occurred in your aircraft,
such as an engine failure, or an enemy missile has lodged up your
tailpipe.  Nine times out of ten you might survive, otherwise
it'll be a quick and dirty end for you.

"Be advised -- enemy ECM activity detected." -- AWACS has
detected enemy aircraft with ECM transmitters operating.  Who
said shooting down a MiG was going to be a cakewalk?

"Copy bracket (left or right)" --  Wingman executing a bracket

"Copy drag (left or right) -- nail him!" -- Wingman executing a
drag maneuver.

"Dumping air-to-ground stores!" -- Wingman jettisoning bombs
and/or air-to-ground missiles to lighten his load, usually
because an enemy fighter has jumped him.  No air-to-air ordnance
is jettisoned, however.

"Breaking (high, low, left, right)" -- Wingman executing break

"Rolling out" -- Wingman rolling straight and level.

"Copy. Kicking out"  -- Wingman spreading out formation.

"Copy. Closing it up" -- Wingman closing up formation.

"Copy. Returning to base" -- Wingman returning to base.  This is
the last you'll hear from them as they bug out for home when you
tell them.

"Harpoon away!" -- Wingman has launched an AGM-84A Harpoon anti-
ship missile (heard only in the Kurile Islands theatre).

"Closing on ship target" -- Wingman has acquired a ship target
and is closing in for the kill (heard only in the Kurile Islands

"You are violating rules of engagement!" -- From AWACS in the
Kuriles only. Isn't it obvious?   See you at the General Court
Martial when -- and if -- you return!

"Be advised, increased enemy air activity!" -- From AWACS in the
Kuriles only.  See what your ROE violation just did? Now you have
a load of pissed-off Russkies going after us!

"Permission given to destroy enemy aircraft!" -- From AWACS in
the Kuriles only.  You heard 'em, now kick some Russian ass!
This doesn't mean you are authorized to blast away every Russkie
on the ground.

"You're on your own..."  Your Whiskey Delta (Weak Dick -- the
worst insult you can call a fighter pilot) wingman just bugged
out on you, it's time to try out some John Wayne fighter tactics
against the Russian fighter squadron closing in at your twelve

"One Russian bugging out..."
"There goes one fine Russian pilot -- Nyet!"
"No cojones on that Russian!" -- Your wingman has been able to
persuade that pesky Fulcrum, Flanker (or whatever the Russkies
just sent you) to go back to the Motherland and fight another

"Smoked a bogie!"
"Nailed him!"
"Alpha Mike Foxtrot!" (Adios Mother Fucker)
"Yo -- your fries are done!"
"Scratch one, down in flames!
"Watch the canopy when you punch out, jack!"
"Time to feed the worms, bud!"  -- Miscellaneous kill calls from
your wingman.

"Paint us like Thunderbirds first, sir!" -- Smartass remark from
your wingman when you close up the formation too much.

"Negative -- maintianing visual contact." -- You've spread out
the formation too far.

"Do svidaniya, stupid American!" --  From the Russian TU-22.  Now
you've really pissed 'em off! And just to get even he just
launched a UMF(Unmanned Fighter) at you!